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Saturday, October 14, 2017

Akkadian Lexicon



This fragment of a tablet from Nimrud (no. 5434 ) contains a list of synonyms. It gives "Malku" as a synonym for "Šarru". British Museum



Alice C. Linsley

This partial list of Akkadian words will be helpful to biblical anthropologists. These words should be compared to words in ancient Egyptian, Old Arabic, Hungarian (Magyar), and Bulgarian (Thracian).

Akkadian is an inflected language with grammatical cases. It is the oldest known Semitic language and as with all Semitic languages, Akkadian words are built on consonantal roots. Most Akkadian roots are tri-consonantal. Some roots are composed of four consonants (four radicals). Between and around these radicals there are various infixes, suffixes and prefixes.

Akkadian has three numbers (singular, dual and plural) and three cases (nominative, accusative and genitive). However, the dual number is largely confined to natural pairs (eyes, ears, etc.) or binary sets. This appears to reflect a very archaic pattern. Adjectives are never found in the dual. In the dual and plural, the accusative and genitive are merged into a single oblique case.


abal - without
abarakku -  (title) grand vizier
abaru - lead (metal)
abatu - to flee from, to run away; also to completely destroy
abi - my father
abnu - stone
abu/abum - father (Plural: abbuu - fathers)
abdu - servant
abru - priest
abrutu - priesthood, a caste of priests
adikanna - time
aga - golden crown
agrun - bed chamber
akalu - to eat
aklum - bread
akhu - brother
akhatu - sister
alpum - ox
alu - city
ammeni - why
ammtu - handmaid
amtum - servant, slave
ana - to, for, after, approximately
anaku - the royal I  (compare ancient Egyptian anochi - I)
anduraāru - freedom; release of debt; exemptionAnu/Anum - the High God whose son is called Enki.
apkallu - wise man/ healer priest?
arbu - fugitive, runaway
ardu - servant, slave
arhu - month
assatu (Variants: assutu/issutu) - principal wife
assatu awili - veiled principal wife (in public)
askuppatu - threshold
ayyu - which?
azu - physician priest (Sargon was born in Azu-pir-Anu - house of divine healing/temple)


ba - water
babi - gates
babum - gate, door
bakhu - to weep
balatu - health, wholeness, well-being
bantu - mother
banu - to build
baranu - rebel
barsillu - garment
bel - lord of
bi itu - house
birûtu - human (clean, pure)
bishu - evil
bit durani - fortress (bit tuklati - stronghold)
bītu - fortified shrine
buhur - first born
buru - water well
burumitu - sky blue; lapis lazuli


daianu - judge
Da-odu - David (Corresponds to the Yoruba Daw-odu.)
dahh-ubu - gold (also hurusam)
dammu - blood
dannum/danim - strong, powerful
daris - for ever
darutu - long life
datu - law, decree
dinu - to judge
dishpu - honey
dû - hill


ebar - beyond, the other side of
ebebu - to be clean
Edinu - Eden
edû - flow, spring
eka - where?
ekallu/ekallum - palace, great house
elēlu - to be pure, to be free, to purify, to become free
eli - up, over
ellu/ellum - ritually pure
em - wherever
enenu - to have compassion
en/enum - lord, master, high official, priest, priestess (entu)
Enki - the son of the Creator God Anu (En-ki means "Lord of the Earth.")
enu - eye
enzu - goat
epiru - dust
erbe/arba - four
erebu/erbum - sunset, time of setting sun
eridu - home away from home
erimtu - baked brick
ersetu - Earth, soil, ground, place (also ki), region, land, territory
ersu - bed (related to resû, Akkadian word for riverbed, channel.)
eš - pavilion, tent, shrine
esirtu - concubine
esru - ten


ga - milk
gam - also
gan - field, parcel of land, territory
garnu - horn
gārû - opponent in war
garru/garrum - a box
gurguri - copper smith/metal worker
guruvash - servant (related to karauash - servant)
girbaanu - offering
girginakku (Variant: garginakku) - a box for written tablets
gisnu - bed (also ersu or isersu)
gud - powerful bull (also a solar symbol)


haddu - joyful
hamshu - five
ḫāpiru - human being
harrani - road
haru - to dig out
hašhuru - tree fruit/apple?
hassinu - ax
hatanu - son-in-law
hatri - overseer of serfs
ḫaṭṭum - royal scepter
hazannu - mayor
hirtu (Variants: hiratu/histu) - wife
hisbu - vulva
hubullu - debt, obligation
hurusam - gold (Hur/Horus + sam referring to the sun.)
hush - reddish


idu - to know
Idiqlat - Tigris
Il - High God (El in Hebrew)
ikkaru - gardener or farmer
ikribu - prayer accompanying ritual act, related to Ancient Egyptian iri - to enact
ilum - deity
im - rib (also ti)
immu - day
ina - in, on, out, through, under
insabtu - ring
inu - eye (also enu)
išaru - penis
isḫu - human, physical body (male)
isu/kistu - wood
išātu - fire
iši - mountain
ištēn (M); ištāt (F) - one (cardinal number)
itti - with, also
ittimalu - yesterday


kabattu/kabadu - liver
kakkabu - star
kalab/kalbu - dog
kallatu - daughter-in-law
kan - blood, field
kanu - convict, to bow down (also to worship?)
karmu - ruin
kaspu - silver
ki - earth, place
kikuli (also kikildu) - to train a horse or camel
kiprat arba - four regions/four peoples (related to Kirat Arba, archaic name for Hebron.)
kisallu - court
kissugu - fish
kudurru - boundary stone
kulturi/kultari - dwellings, habitations
kumru - black priest (likely in contrast to red priest: sandu šangû)
kur - land owned (related to kur/kar - rock shelter or fortified high place)
kurtum - territory


labaru - pertains to granting long life
labiru - old, of old
lābu - lion, protector
lahmu - hairy
lahlah - to drive [herds/slaves] forcefully
laqlaqqu - stork
letu - cheek
lemnu - bad
libbi - my heart
libnat - mud brick
lū - or
lu - man
lugal - king, ruler, great man (Sumerian)
lumakku - junior priest


maklu - burnt offering (Variant: maqlu)
malku - ruler-priest (Synonym: Šarru)
mamitu - saying, utterance, precept
mannu - who?
marsu - sick
māru - son
māru rabu - eldest son
mār šarri - son of the king
martum - daughter
maṣṣarum - guards
matum - country, motherland
meshu - to clean
milku - counsel
mīnū - what?
mittu - mace/the dead
mu - water


na - a modal prefix indicating service to, affirmation, or affiliation. Na-Hor - a servant of Horus
nabu - prophet, seer
nagasu - roam (naga - snake, Azag - the Great Serpent, one shining like metal - zag)
nanna - moon
naru - river
naxlu - stream
nesaĝ - offering
nesû - (1) distant; from far, exotic; (3) to withdraw; to depart from, abandon; to remove; (3) to deport (people); to make recede/repel
nigin - to enclose, to surround
nirru - yoke
nunu - fish


parzillu - iron
pašīšu - the anointed
pid - box, chest or arc
pû - mouth, word, growth, bud
puluhtu - fear
purkullu - stone cutter
putu - forehead


qannu - horn
qannuntu - curly haired (F)
qaštu - bow (with arrow)
qātu - hand


raatu - water course
rabu/rabum - great,vast, large
rapšum - wide
raqadu - to dance
resû - river bed, branch of river
reshu - head, beginning
rubbo - chief, leader


sag - head
sakgal - master
šamû - heaven
samsum - sun
sandu - red
šangû - priest
šarratum - queen
šarrum - king
šarāqum - to steal
šattu - year
sebe - seven
sebet babi - seven gates
šepum - foot; šepān - feet
šeȗ - to examine, look closely into
shaddu - mountain
shalatu - to rule, to reign
shamanu - eight
shamshi - the Sun
sibbu - serpent
šinā (M); šittā (F) - two (cardinal number)
šinnu - tooth
siparru - copper
sipati - wool
sipru - writing
siru - meat
sisu - horse
sittu - rest
šumeru - Sumerian
supû - prayer, supplication

tahumu - boundary
tamati - seas
tamitu - oath, pledge
tâmtu (ti'amtum) - sea
tayartu - to return
tesliti - my prayer
teslītu - prayer
tiamatu - ocean, abyss
tillu - hill, mound
tinūru - oven
tishu - nine
turu - bull


ubar - breast
ud - fire
ul - high, elevated (sky)
urhu - way, road
Urusalim - Jerusalem
urru - daytime
ūṣu, uṣṣu - arrow, arrowhead
utu - sun power, divine overshadowing, high noon
umu - day
ummum - mother
u - and
uzubu - dowry


wabalu - to carry away, to take away
wasabu - sit (Possibly related to the seated healer-priest, called "wabau" in Egyptian.)
wasu - small


zag - shining, like copper
zamaru - to sing
zaqâru - to rise high
zekhru - male
zeru - seed, descendant
zirru - female bird, hen
zuzu - money


Related reading:  The Biradical Origin of Semitic Roots by Bernice Varjick Hecker; Ancient Egyptian Lexicon, Hungarian Lexicon; The Sumerian Language; Dictionary of the Apatani Language; Key to a Grammar of Akkadian by John Huehnergard; Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar; Akkadian Words in Modern Assyrian; Biblical Populations and Akkadian



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