Monday, June 10, 2019

Pentecost as Foretaste of the Great Gathering

Pentecost marks the culmination of the Easter-Ascension event. It is the foretaste of the great gathering of all faithful people, both the living and those in repose. Matthew 8:11 alludes to the great gathering: "Many shall come from the east and the west and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven."

The phrase "Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob" is a formulaic expression for the righteous ancestors in repose. They enjoy God's peace as they await the Day of the Lord. All the faithful shall be gathered to the bosom of God the Father. In the Risen Messiah a scattered people are gathered and made one by the gift of the indwelling Holy Spirit. Peoples of many tongues receive the same message of salvation and rejoice together.

God both gathers and scatters. The "scatter-gather" motif is found throughout Scripture. The peoples of the Afro-Asiatic Dominion spoke one language (Gen. 11:1) until they were scattered. According to the Tower of Babel story, this scattering was the result of linguistic diversification attributed to God.

In Judges we read that the king of the Scattered People resided in Bezek. Bezek means “scatter.” The king of Bezek delighted in cutting off the toes and thumbs of the rulers he conquered. The toes and thumbs were scattered and the rulers were made to gather crumbs like dogs under Bezek’s table. Perhaps this absolute domination was in the mind of the Syrophoenician woman when she came to Jesus begging that He restore her daughter (Mark 7, Matthew 15). 

Consider this historic Anglican Prayer: "We do not presume to come to this thy Table, O merciful Lord, trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy Table. But thou art the same Lord, whose property is always to have mercy: Grant us therefore, gracious Lord, so to eat the flesh of thy dear Son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body, and our souls washed through his most precious blood, and that we may evermore dwell in him, and he in us. Amen."

When Judah and Simeon captured the King of Bezek, they did to him what he had done to the other rulers. Later God warns the clans of Jacob and Joseph through Joshua (Yeshua) that they will be treated the same if the people slip into idolatry: "The LORD will scatter you among the peoples” (Deuteronomy 4:27).

In Ezekiel, we find a prophesy that God was bringing a “sword” upon Israel and would “scatter” their bones (Ezekiel 37). Ezekiel is shown a valley strewn with dry bones and he is asked, “Son of man, can these bones live?” Ezekiel is told to "Prophesy to these bones and say to them, ‘Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord! This is what the Sovereign Lord says to these bones: I will make breath enter you, and you will come to life. I will attach tendons to you and make flesh come upon you and cover you with skin; I will put breath in you, and you will come to life. Then you will know that I am the Lord.’”

The Spirit (Ruach) came from the four directions and the gathered bones lived. Ezekiel prophesied “Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these slain, that they may live” and breath came into the gathered bones and they lived (Ezekiel 37:9,10).

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Anonymous Grumpy Head

Facebook has blocked sharing anything from this blog because an anonymous grumpy head reported it as spam. I manage the blog for Christian Women in Science (CWIS) and I have never spammed this URL or any article that appears at this site.

I am glad that Facebook is going to review the claim for the second time. The original message I received was that content at the blog is abusive and violates community standards. Now I'm told that the complaint involves spamming.

The CWIS blog was set up six years ago as a resource for Christian School teachers and home school parents seeking solid resources to teach STEM and the history of science and technology.  It is entirely informational and represents a range of scientific positions. That is evident from a quick review of the INDEX.

CWIS is an organization I helped to found and this blog was set up with the permission of the CWIS Board. CWIS is an affiliate of the American Scientific Affiliation.

Please share this post with teachers and home school parents. Try posting a link to this at your Facebook page. When FB blocks it, ask for a review.

It also would help if you would become a "Follower" of the blog. Stay informed about STEM and Technology through the monthly posts.

Alice C. Linsley

Monday, May 20, 2019

Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in the Bible

Alice C. Linsley

The discipline of Biblical Anthropology can be daunting. It involves gathering data about many biblical populations. Yes, there are many more populations than the Hebrews, the Israelites, and the Jews. Even these populations are not the same.

Understanding the Bible requires more than an understanding of biblical theology. It also requires understanding the cultural contexts of these biblical populations:

Black and red Nubians
Edomites (Idumeans)

The list is long, but not comprehensive. There are some populations about which we find so little data in the Bible that they will probably remain obscure. Among them are the Kassites, Gerasenes, Gittites, Gizonites, Shunammites, Tizites, and Zuzim.

The Bible also speaks of general classifications, that is, populations that live in the same region, or share a common ancestry and culture. This is the case with the Canaanites. Among them the Bible lists Arkites, Arvadites, Girgashites, Hivites, Jebusites, Kenizzites, and Zemites. The terms "Kushite" and "Greek" refer to many ethnic groups, as does the term "Barbarian."

Some populations are known by different names at different periods of history. The Edomites are also called Seirites, and later called Idumeans. The Madai are also called Medes. The same is true for the Hebrew who are sometimes designated "Horites" (Gen. 36) and are called "Abru" in ancient Akkadian texts.

To further complicate the picture we have sects within these groups. The writer of Acts identifies a group among the Greek speakers as "Hellenists" (Acts 6, 8, and 9). Among the Jews we find Essenes, Herodians, Karaites, Pharisees, Sadducees, and Zealots.

The complexity of ethnic and cultural identity is evident in the way the Turkish-born Apostle Paul describes himself: "Circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee..." (Philippians 3:5-6), and he was a Roman citizen.

Some group names do not refer to an ethnicity, but rather to a social status. That is true for the term "Nephilim" which refers to archaic rulers, or the "mighty men of old" (Gen. 10). Unfortunately, many Bibles render nephilim as “giants” when it should read “great ones.” Nephilim comes from the same root as the Aramaic npyl (nephil) which means great in rank or stature. This is equivalent to the Arabic nfy, meaning hunter. It is said concerning Nimrod that he was a “mighty hunter” or a “mighty man” before the Lord. Genesis 6 describes the Nephilim as gibboriym, meaning “powerful ones.”

Other names refer to clans. The Anakim are a people descended from Anak. The Anakim were organized into a three-clan confederation. The three clans were named for the highest ranked sons of Anak - Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai (Josh.15:14). Anak and his Anakim people dwelt in the region of Hebron. Anak's father was Arba. Hebron was called Kiriath-Arba. The Anakim are associated with the Nephilim (Num. 13:33), with the Raphaim (Deut. 2:10), and with the clan of Caleb (Josh.15:13). Therefore, Caleb’s offensive against the Anakim was a war against some of his kinsmen.

The "people of Israel" are comprised of multiple clans descended from Jacob. Like the descendants of Anak, the descendants of Jacob fought among themselves. The clan of Benjamin was nearly wiped out by its fellow Israelites.

We note a familial relationship between clans that share certain radicals. Note the “le” prefix in these clan names: Le’hab, Le’sha, Le’tushim and Le’ummim (Gen. 25:3). The Semitic languages typically have particles that begin with L (le, lu or la). Le is a Hebrew prefix, but it appears in older languages such as Akkadian. "La’baru" pertains to granting long life and is related to the Akkadian word la’biru, meaning old. There is also linguistic evidence of three-clan confederations, such as Jubal, Jabal and Tubal; Uz, Huz and Buz, and Og, Gog and Magog.

Some clan names indicate a caste. The Tahash clan were related to Abraham the Hebrew. One of Abraham's nephews was Tahash (Gen. 22:24). Tahash refers to a tanner of animal skins. Exodus 25:5 links "five ram skins dyed red" with "tahash skins." The Tahash caste of Hebrew ritually prepared the skins of sacrificed animals for use in solemn oaths, such as the passing of leather sandals (Ruth 4:7).

Another caste were the Horite Hebrew. These were priests who served the High God and his son. The Horite Hebrew priests were unique among the priest castes of the ancient world and greatly respected for their purity and sobriety. Some prominent members of this caste include Abraham, Moses, Joshua, Samuel, and David.

The complexity and diversity of biblical populations is the focus of Biblical Anthropology. This is why Biblical Anthropology is a great aid in understanding the Bible on a deeper level.

Friday, May 17, 2019

The Horite High Places

Alice C. Linsley

The mysterious 'Apiru were also known as the Hapiru or Habiru. Habiru is rendered "Hebrew" in English Bibles. The term piru refers to a house of temple. A temple was the mansion (hâît) or the house (pirû) of the god. The ancient Dravidians referred to their East-oriented temples as Opiru, meaning "Sun House."

In the Pyramid Texts, the deceased king is urged to rise to life and to visit the Horite "great houses" or temples. (Utterance 665)

In the ancient Egyptian language nibit piru means "lady of the house" or the lady of the temple. This would refer to the mistress of a royal household and to the royal daughter who was in charge of a temple. During his reign (c. 2334–2284 BC) Sargon appointed his daughter Heduanna as the En of the temple at Ur. The Akkadian term En means lord, master, royal official, priest or priestess. En-Heduanna served the High God Anu and his son En-Ki (Lord of the Earth) at the House (pr) of Anu.

In Akkadian the word for priest was abru, and the priesthood or a caste of priests was called abrutu. In the ancient world, there were many castes of priests. They were identified by the deity they served, and it was believed that deity appointed the ruler in whose realm the priests served. The religion of the territory was the religion of the ruler and the priest caste that served the ruler.

The Horite Hebrew priests were unique among the priest castes of the ancient world and greatly respected for their purity and sobriety. Plutarch wrote that the “priests of the Sun at Heliopolis never carry wine into their temples, for they regard it as indecent for those who are devoted to the service of any god to indulge in the drinking of wine whilst they are under the immediate inspection of their Lord and King. The priests of the other deities are not so scrupulous in this respect, for they use it, though sparingly.” Due to their prestige, the Horite Hebrew were sought as servants of the high kings who constructed palaces and royal temple complexes at the "high places." Their association with elevated sites may be why the Horite Hebrew are sometimes described as cave dwellers.

Heliopolis (Sun City) was known by the natives as Iunu, meaning place of pillars. (Likewise, the royal complex of Dendera was known as Iunet. The I represents a pillar.) Iunu was one of the most prestigious Horite high places. The Harris papyrus speaks of the 'Apriu of Ra at Heliopolis (biblical On), as do the Coffin Texts and the Pyramid Texts. Joseph married Asenath, the daughter of the priest of On. Other ancient texts that speak of Horite high places (mounds) include Sumerian and Akkadian cuneiform tablets and the Amarna Letters, a collection of 14th century B.C. letters.

The Horite Hebrew served kings throughout the ancient world. Among the Nilotes, they served Re, which simply means "father of..." in ancient Egyptian. Re is the father of Horus whose mother Hathor conceived him by divine overshadowing (cf. Luke 1). The name Horus is derived from the root HR, which means the "One on high." Related Egyptian words include her, meaning over or above; horiwo - head, and hir - praise. Horus and Hathor are often shown on ancient Egyptian monuments as the father and mother of the dead kings, but whom the deceased hope to rise from the grave.

Among the Mesopotamians, the Horite Hebrew served Anu, the father of Enki. Wherever the Horite Hebrew became established there was a belief that the High God has a son. This is a central belief of the Messianic Faith called "Christianity."

Evidence of the Horite Hebrew can be found at many of the oldest high-elevation temples. This green malachite stone, a gift from the Egyptian king with whom the Hittites signed a treaty in BC 1258, was at the center of a Horite shrine in the Hittite capital of Hattusa (in Çorum Province in Turkey). Among the ancient Nilotes green malachite represented new life and the hope of resurrection. The land of the blessed dead was described as the "field of malachite."

Green stones were associated with Horus, whose animal totem was the falcon. The Book of the Dead speaks of how the deceased will become a falcon "whose wings are of green stone" (chapter 77). The protective Eye of Horus amulet was made of green stone. The Ancient Pyramid Texts speak of Horus as the "Lord of the green stone" (Utterance 301).

Horite Pillars, Pyramids, and Mounds

For the Horites the mound or high place represented the primeval creation. The first land to rise from the primordial flood was called TaTJaNuN by the ancient Egyptians. In the Ugaritic creation story the two mounds are likewise indicated by the sign T. The mounds Trgzz and Trmg emerged from a universal ocean and held up the firmament. They also marked the entrance to the Netherworld, so the phrase pillars refer to the Creator's work whereby the heavens and the earth are connected.

The Pyramid Texts [hereafter PT] describe the four cardinal points as "four pillars" (Utterance 217). The pillars connect heaven and earth, as Dr. Zahi Hawass notes:
"The true pyramid, while retaining its meaning as primeval mound and stairway to the stars, also represents the rays of the sun as they stream down to earth. It echoes the benben, a pointed stone that was the solar symbol par excellence." (Hawass, Mountains of the Pharaohs, p. 34)

The first mound of God is found in the mythology of the Horite settlements at On and Memphis. Their mounds, pyramids, and sacred stone pillars called benben represent the first land that rose from the chaotic waters. In the On myth, Atum-Re arose from the primeval mound and created the first two humans as deities. In the Memphis narrative, Ptah rose from the primeval mound and gave order to the world through his word/speech. The ancient Egyptians called the sacred mound mer, which is also the Egyptian word for love.

The idea of the earth resting on pillars is found in I Samuel 2:8 - "For the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s and he had set the world upon them." This idea is also found in Psalm 75:3: "It is I who have firmly set its pillars." These are the pillars described in Job 9:6 - "Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble."

Nubian captives

The Horite Mounds and the Sethite Mounds

It appears from the Pyramid Texts that the Horites and the Sethites maintained separate settlements. Utterance 308 addresses them as separate entities: "Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Mounds! Hail to you, Horus in the Sethite Mounds!"

PT Utterance 470 contrasts the Horite mounds with the mounds of Seth, designating the Horite Mounds "the High Mounds."

The two groups appear to be separate yet related, suggesting a moiety, such as that of the Red and Black Nubians. The term moiety refers to two social or ritual groups into which a people is divided. The distinction between the two groups is evident in PT Utterance 424: "O King, a boon which the King grants, that you occupy the Mounds of Horus, that you travel about the Mounds of Seth..." Here we find a suggestion that the Horites indeed take their name from their devotion to Horus.

PT Utterance 424 continues, "that you [King] sit on your iron throne and judge their affairs at the head of the Great Ennead which is in On." Though separate, the Horites and the Sethites are judged by a common king.

That both groups serve the same king is evident from PT Utterance 213: "O King, you have not departed dead, you have departed alive...The Mounds of Horus serve you, the Mounds of Seth serve you."

The extent of the King's reign is considerable. In his resurrection body he is to "traverse the Mound of Horus of the Southerners" and "traverse the Mound of Horus of the Northerners." (PT Utterances 536 and 553) The risen king restores his settlements and cities, and opens doors to the Westerners, Easterners, Northerners and Southerners (Pt Utterance 587). He is to "betake himself to the Mansion of Horus which is in the firmament" (PT Utterance 539).

The risen king unites the peoples, restores the former state of blessedness, and unites heaven and earth. When seen from this perspective, the Horite religion appears to be the foundation of the Messianic hope that is fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth.

Related reading: Horite Temples; The Pillars of the Earth; The High Places: The Symbolism of the Eye of Horus in the Pyramid Texts; Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection; Horus of the Two Crowns; The Ra-Horus-Hathor Narrative; Blood and the Impulse to Immortality

Saturday, May 11, 2019

The Scapegoat

Alice C. Linsley

Leviticus 16:11-16 contains instructions for Aaron's first entrance into the Tent of Meeting and the veiled Shrine of the High God YHWH. Aaron is to prepare by washing himself and vesting in the garments of the high priest. He is to offer a bull to make expiation for himself and for his household. He is to slaughter the bull and with his finger he is to sprinkle some of the bull's blood over the "cover" on the east side and in front of the cover he is to sprinkle the blood seven times with his finger. By this means Aaron is to "purge" the Shrine of the uncleanness and transgression of the Israelites.

After he has made expiation for himself and his household, Aaron is to purge the altar that is before the LORD. He is to take some of the blood of the bull and the he-goat and apply it to the horns of the altar and the rest of the blood is to be sprinkled on the altar seven times with his finger. (Lev. 16:17-19. All references used in this post follow the verse numbers of the Hebrew Bible.)

Leviticus 16 also speaks of another goat. This is the goat that is to be sent away and it is usually referred to as the "scapegoat." However, the goat is designated "Azaz-el" which means the "strong one of God." This goat is led by a ruler of the people, designated itti, to the wilderness where it is released. This goat also makes expiation (verse 10). The ruler who sets the Azaz-el free in the wilderness is to wash his clothes and bathe his body before he re-enters the camp (verse 26).

It is interesting that the remains of the sacrificed bull and goat are also to be taken outside the camp where they are to be consumed in fire (holocaust). He who burns them is to wash his clothes and bathe himself before he may re-enter the camp (verse 28).

Christians have noted parallels to the Gospel narratives about Jesus Messiah. He was driven into the wilderness by the Holy Spirit where he contended with temptations.

Jesus is a "sent-away" son. In the Bible the sent-away sons are the heroes and it is to them that God delivers a kingdom.

His death was on a hill "outside the camp" of Jerusalem.

He was crucified by the Romans, but he was led to them by the High Priest, a ruler of the people.

His blood is regarded as the final and sufficient covering for the sins of the world.

Christians believe Jesus to be the "strong man" and this sheds a different light on the parable of the strong man in Mark 3.

A shaved priest (korah) sacrificing a ram

What happened to the ram?

Leviticus 16:5 mentions a ram that is to be offered also, but the ram is not mentioned again in the entire chapter. This is curious because the ram was a sacred offering among the Horite Hebrew, Aaron's ruler-priest caste. The "binding of Isaac" (Akadeh) in Genesis 22 ends with Isaac's life being spared through divine intervention and the substitution of a ram.

For Abraham the Horite Hebrew, the lamb was associated with the east and the rising of the sun. The ram was associated with the west, the setting sun, and the future. This belief emerged from the solar imagery of the Proto-Gospel. Horus, the son of Ra was depicted as being one with the Father. He rode with the Father on the solar boat. The boat of the morning hours was called Mandjet and the boat of the evening hours was called Mesektet. While Horus was on Mandjet he was in the form of a lamb. While in the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form.

It was the custom of the Hebrews in Egypt to observe certain festivals. One was the festival of the death and resurrection of Horus who was called "son" of God. This lasted five days and involved sowing wheat seed in the fields. Perhaps this is why Jesus spoke of his impending death using the image of a seed being sown in the ground in order to give life (John 12:24).

Another festival involved a three-day journey into the wilderness. This likely involved sacrifice of a ram, an animal that was sacred to the Egyptians. (See Exodus 3:18; 5:3, and 8:26-28.) This is why Moses said to Pharaoh that the Hebrew clans had to make a three-day journey into the wilderness. "...for the sacrifices that we offer to the LORD our God are an abomination to the Egyptians. If we offer in the sight of the Egyptians sacrifices that are an abomination to them, will they not stone us?”

There is an interesting linguistic connection between the ram and the soul in ancient Egyptian thought. Both are the same word - ba. No wonder the Egyptians did not kill rams!

Related reading: Rabbinic Take on the Word Azazel; What Abraham Discovered on Mount Moriah; The Ra-Horus-Hathor Narrative; Sent-Away Sons

Saturday, April 27, 2019

The ACNA and the Priesthood of the Church

Women "bishops" of the Episcopal Church

Alice C. Linsley

This has been a difficult article to write due to the strength of my conviction that women’s ordination to the sacred order of priests is a dangerous innovation that will continue to cause division in the Anglican Church in North America. It is unfortunate that this practice carried over from the Episcopal Church.

I have been speaking and writing on this subject for over 15 years, mainly from the perspective of Biblical Anthropology, but also from personal experience as a former priest in the Episcopal Church. I have no illusion that what I say will change the minds of those who hold their positions with equally firm conviction.

The ACNA College of Bishops recently heard from three women on the subject of women in ministry. Two of the women are ordained and one is a lay person. If the bishops are earnestly interested in listening to all views, what I offer here may be helpful. I speak as a woman in lay ministry.

I am not hopeful that a catholic resolution on the question of women priests can be achieved in the ACNA. Anglicans appears to relish theological ambiguity and our bishops do not insist on uniformity of doctrine and practice when it comes to nonessentials. That the all-male priesthood touches the heart of the Messianic Faith that we call “Christianity” does not sway the supporters of women’s ordination. Nor do they appear to be disturbed by the tension this innovation creates in ecumenical relations with bodies that uphold catholic orders.

Anglicans claim Scripture as our central authority, yet supporters of women’s ordination obfuscate the fact that not a single woman priest is found in the Bible. Many are proud of the “reformed” nature of the Anglican Way, yet they are unwilling to reform to the received Tradition of the all-male priesthood. They do not recognize the truth of Father Louis Tarsitano’s words: “The priesthood of Christ, and that representative priesthood rooted in Christ's priesthood is changeless. To change it is to change the New Testament itself.”

On the question of women priests, Archbishop Edmund Akanya of the Anglican Church of Nigeria has stated: “Our position as a church is that it runs counter to scripture and more so our culture. Even the women themselves are seriously opposed to women’s ordination. This position has been held before I became a bishop. In fact, it is looked at as something that led to the issue of human sexuality today.”

Archbishop Akanya is justified in this view since the first woman ordained to the priesthood in the Episcopal Church (following the decision of General Convention) was Ellen Marie Barrett, a lesbian who served with gay activist Louie Crew as co-president of Integrity. She was ordained in 1977 by the social activist Bishop Paul Moore of New York.

The critical moment for affirmation of the catholic position on the priesthood has long passed. At the inception of the Anglican Church in North America, the lead Bishops unanimously agreed to work together for the good of the Kingdom. As part of this effort, different positions on the ordination of women would be acceptable in a spirit of mutual love and respect, and a desire to move forward for the good of the ACNA. This commitment was embedded in the Constitution and Canons overwhelmingly adopted by the Inaugural Assembly in 2009.

It is unfair, therefore, to accuse the Bishops of "kicking the can down the road" on women’s ordination. They are doing exactly what they agreed to do. As Bishop Jim Hobby said in response to questions about the three women’s presentations to the House, “From my limited experience and perspective, I see bishops engaging in respectful conversation about theological differences while working together to strengthen the Church and to reach the world with the Gospel.”

In the Victoria Statement, the ACNA bishops expressed regret that they had not been more supportive of women in ministry. The Bishops met in Victoria, Canada in September 2017 to discuss holy orders and the role of women. At that meeting they said, “We have not effectively discipled and equipped all Christians, male and especially female, lay and ordained, to fulfill their callings and ministries in the work of God’s kingdom. We repent of this and commit to work earnestly toward a far greater release of the whole Church to her God-given mission.”

As part of that commitment, a Bishops’ Working Group on Holy Orders was formed. This group is co-chaired by Bishop Clark Lowenfield and Bishop Jim Hobby. (Bishop Hobby’s wife, Shari, is an ACNA priest.)

The bishops should not be overly hard on themselves. They inherited this conflicted condition and they are saddled with it. Though most ACNA bishops do not favor women’s ordination, female priests is now the cultural norm in the ACNA. Given what I have learned from anthropology about cultural change, I doubt the ACNA can reform to the biblical norm.

The preservation of a fragile ACNA coalition is more important than the boundary stones set up by our holy ancestors (Proverbs 22:28). Those markers enable us to discern and avoid errant paths.

The Anglican Church in North America has been permanently corrupted by the adoption of a practice from TEC. The polity of the ACNA is such that no leader has the authority to correct this. In effect, the ACNA has a crisis of authority.

As an anthropologist, I've studied how outside innovations can gradually and completely change the social fabric of a community if they are adopted. Rarely does the community return to the original pattern. If there is a return to the community's native pattern, it is because a very strong leader makes that happen. A biblical example is King Josiah who removed the celestial horses from the temple entrance probably because these had come to symbolize shamanist practices such as bestiality in a royal fertility ritual, and human and horse sacrifice among some populations.

The Church is a conserving entity by which God preserves right belief and right actions in the service of humanity. Unfortunately, the conservation of wildlife and the environment have become higher priorities than the conservation of Scripture and Tradition. Social justice ranks above preserving the Gospel ministry of the all-male priesthood. Feminism, and its underlying Marxist worldview, dictates our thinking about the roles of men and women in the Church.

In his treatise “Priestesses in the Church,” C. S. Lewis observed, “The innovators are really implying that sex is something superficial, irrelevant to the spiritual life. To say that men and women are equally eligible for a certain profession is to say that for the purposes of that profession their sex is irrelevant. We are, within that context, treating both as neuters. As the State grows more like a hive or an ant-hill it needs an increasing number of workers who can be treated as neuters. This may be inevitable for our secular life. But in our Christian life we must return to reality.”

Related reading: Anglicans Divided; Why Women Were Never Priests; Men at Altar, Women at Empty Tomb

Friday, April 19, 2019

Mongolian Lexicon

Alice C. Linsley

This short list of Mongolian words will be helpful to Biblical Anthropologists seeking linguistic connections between the Central Asian populations and biblical populations. It is best used alongside the Hungarian Lexicon, the Ancient Egyptian Lexicon, and the Akkadian Lexicon.

achor - towel
ado - horse herd
aduu - horse
agui - cave
airag - mare's milk
alchaã - shelter, hut, booth
altan - golden
amche - physician
anda - blood brother ritual
arag - wine

baatar - hero
barimal - statue made by hand
bö - shaman
boroo - rain
buqa - stud bull

chono - wolf
chuluun - stone

dörbeljin üsüg - Mongolian square or quadratic script

gal - fire
gerel - light
ger - home, tent (ghar - home in Urdu/Hindi)
gobi - desert
gol - river
golomt - hearth

halkhazug - gown
Hor - the Tibetan word for the Mongols
hün - adult male, man
hünij - human being

ild - Mongolian scimitar, sabre
ikh - great

khöndii - valley, large gorge
khoomii - diphonic throat song in which the singer produces 2 separate lines simultaneously
kurultai - a political or military council (khur - to assemble, to discuss)

magtaal - ode
mergen - wise
mogoi - snake
mod - tree
möngön - silver
mori - horse
mörön - large river

naranu gerel - sunlight
nar/naran - the Sun
nokhoi - dog
nökhör - comrade at arms

obok - clan (cf. the Japanese word oba, for clan chief. The first ruler of Petra was called Obodas.)
od - star
ödör - day
ols - rope
ordo - the central tent of a leader, a seat of honor
ovoo - sacred stone heap (Variants: oboo and obo)

qačar - cheek
quduã - water well
qut - divine power, power from on high, given to a ruler or a shaman

salhi - wind
sar - the Moon
shuvuu - bird
sogchas - Mongolian dress
sogjil - ear ring
sog-zha - Mongolian hat
šönö - night

takhilch - preserver of Tradition, caretaker
temegen - camel
temur - iron
terigün - head
tenger - sky
Tengri - High God (Tien or Tian in Chinese.)
tsas - snow
tsus - blood
tuãul - calf

üker - cattle, cow, bull, ox,
umusu - socks
ünijen - milk cow
us/usny - water
uul - mountain

yajar - place
yer - Earth