Tuesday, March 26, 2019

The Religious Impulse Among Archaic Populations

6500 year shard found at elevated site in Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Alice C. Linsley

There is a common misconception that religious practices first emerged when humans became more sedentary and began to farm. The prehistoric images painted on the walls of rock shelters suggests that this is not the case. These have a religious quality and many anthropologists believe them rock shelters to be have been places of religious ritual.

There also are archaic temples at high elevations like Gobekli Tepe and Çatalhöyük. At Çatalhöyük the priests wore leopard skins as did the priests of the ancient Upper Nile. These archaic sites indicate organized religion with priests and rituals involving astronomy and the cycle of the seasons. In the Bible these mountain shrines and temples are called "the high places." 

7000-6000 years settlements in the Alps were contemporaneous with settlements in the Carpathian mountains and with Europe's oldest city in Bulgaria. At the same time, Galilee received immigrants from the Zagros mountains.

This is a photo of a mountain fortification in Bellinzona, Switzerland where 6500 year artifacts have been found. 

Around 70,000 years ago people living in Southern Africa carved a python out of the side of a cliff and conducted religious ceremonies there. At the back of the Botswana cave was a chamber believed to be a sacred site because there were no signs of animal bones, tools or cooking fires such as those found in South Africa's Blombos Cave of a similar age.

Another phenomena that indicates religious impulse is the 90,000+ years of burial in red ochre, a symbol of blood. This appears to express the hope of life after death. As it says in the Bible: "Life is in the blood."

From the perspective of anthropology, the deep time record of human activity is evident in the vast number of objects made and used by humans. The religious nature of ritual burial is another example of the depth of human existence. Consider these examples:

100,000 years ago - Burial of humans in red ochre at Qafzeh Cave in what is today Israel. Evidence of human habitation in the area of Bethlehem between 100,000-10,000 BC) is well-attested along the north side of Wadi Khareitun where there are three caves: Iraq al-Ahmar, Umm Qal’a, and Umm Qatafa. These caves were homes in a wooded landscape overlooking a river. At Umm Qatafa archaeologists have found the earliest evidence of the domestic use of fire in Palestine.

50,000 years ago - A small boy buried with a seashell pendant and covered in red ochre

45,000 years ago - A man buried at La Chapelle-aux-Saints in southern France in red ochre

35,000 years ago - Male buried in red ochre in Paviland Cave, Wales

32,000 years ago - Four bodies buried in red ochre at Sungir in Russia.

23,000 years ago - The "Fox Lady" of Doini Vestonice, Czechoslovakia, buried in red ochre

20,000 years ago - A thirty-year-old man buried in Bavaria surrounded by mammoth tusks and submerged in red ochre.

Australian burial sites dating to about 20,000 years reveal pink staining of the soil around the skeleton, indicating that red ochre had been sprinkled over the body. The remains of an adult male found at Lake Mungo in southeastern Australia were copiously sprinkled with red ochre.

19,000 years ago - Lady of El Mirón cave in northern Spain was buried in red ochre. She died around the age of 35.

7000 years ago -Two skeletons buried in red ochre found at La Braña-Arintero cave in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain

5000 years ago - Two flexed burials were found in Mehrgarh, Pakistan with a covering of red ochre on the bodies

There is no doubt that humans have had a religious impulse from the beginning. It appears to express an awareness of our mortality and a hope for life after death.

Friday, February 22, 2019

The Ancient Antecedents of Ash Wednesday

Alice C. Linsley

The association of ashes with sacrifice at the archaic places of worship is well attested. The oldest places of worship were at elevated sites near permanent water sources. The Bible refers to these as the "high places." Burnt offerings were made at these sites and the ashes were used to purify (lustration). In Numbers 9:19, we read how the ashes of the sacrificed red heifer were used for "water of lustration." This explains why there is a linguistic relationship between the ancient word for high place and words for ashes or charcoal.

The word kar refers to a fortified site with a temple or shrine tended by priests. Karnak on the Nile and Carnak in Brittany are examples. In Dravidian, car means "sheltered together" and kari refers to a river. In Manding, kara means "to assemble." Among the Nilotic Luo, kar specifies a place with boundaries such as mud ramparts or stone fortifications. In Sumerian, é-kur refers to a mountain house, a pyramid, or an elevated temple. In Akkadian, a ruined high place was called karmu. There is a connection between karmu (ruin) and the Magyar/Hungarian word hamu (ashes).

Since the kar were places of burnt offering where ashes were used to purify, the term kar is often associated with charcoal and soot. The Turkish kara means "black." In Magyar/Hungarian, the word korom refers to soot, as does the Korean word kurim.

In the biblical literature we find many figures offering burnt sacrifice on mountains. The practice is older than Judaism. It seems to have pertained to a royal caste of sacrificing priests who were known as Habiru in ancient texts. In English Bibles Habiru is rendered as "Hebrew."

In our time, Ash Wednesday points participants to our mortality and to the hope of bodily resurrection. That hope comes through the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Messiah who offered himself on a high hill shaped like a skull.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

The T-Shaped Pillars of Gobekli Tepe

The priests of Çatalhöyük 

Alice C. Linsley

High places such as Gobekli Tepe and Çatalhöyük had royal temples that would have been built by the "Mighty Men of Old" (Genesis 6:4). This image was found at Çatalhöyük (7000 BC). It shows a red skin priest wearing the leopard skin typical of the priests of antiquity who moved out of the Nile valley. Keep in mind that the dispersion of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1 began about 70,000 years ago, long before the time of Noah (4000-2800 BC).

The T-shape pillars at Gobekli Tepe probably represent the Sun's arc from east to west. This shape is a symbol of the High God, and later enters into scripts as the mark of the High God. An example is the oldest known word for the High God among the Chinese, which is s 天 Tiān. The word also means Heaven. I suspect it is closely related to T-An, suggesting that the priests of Anu/Ani (Sumerian and Akkadian) had moved from Bactria into China much earlier than generally assumed.

Göbekli Tepe predates the oldest temple known to have been built by Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors in Sudan at Nekhen by about 3000 years. It predates the Great Pyramids of Giza by about 7000 years. It is the oldest known temple, and it remains shrouded in mystery.

Göbekli Tepe is classified as a Pre-Pottery Neolithic site (PPN). It is designated PPNA (ca 10,500 to 9,500 BC) which puts it in the same class as Jericho, Netiv Hagdud, Nahul Oren, Gesher, Dhar', Jerf al Ahmar, Chogha Golan and Abu Hureyra.

This site is located in what is today Turkey. This "land between the rivers" was an ancient crossroads for peoples migrating between Africa and the ancient Near East.

Göbekli figures
Credit: National Geographic

It is likely that priest smiths moved into the Tigris-Euphrates region and Anatolia from the Nile Valley. The Anatolian metal workers called themselves the Nes or Nas. Their language was called Nesli. Note the parallel inn the Serbian language. The Serbian word nas means us and naši means ours, one of us.

Here we find the same archaic root NS. In Akkadian, "na" is a modal prefix indicating service to, affirmation, or affiliation. The name Na-Hor would then indicate a servant of Horus. I have a suspicion that Na-S refers to archaic metal workers for whom the serpent was a sacred symbol and their totem. The word Nes is associated with the rulers of the Nile. In ancient Egypt, Nesu biti referred to the ruler of a united Upper and Lower Nile.  

It is a characteristic of archaic peoples to designate themselves as the people, humans, or first people. Many archaic populations called themselves names that mean the People or the Humans. The natives of the Aleutian islands call themselves "Anishinabe" which means "First Men" or "Original Men." The term "Ainu" means human. The Navajo call themselves the Dene, which means humans.

It is thought that the Hittites introduced iron work to Anatolia, but the term "Hittite" is an anachronism when we speak of populations as far back as 7000 BC. Abraham interacted with the Hittite clans of Het who are listed in Genesis 10. HT is the Hebrew and Arabic root for copper - nahas-het. Nahash means serpent. As an adjective it means shining bright, like burnished copper. The clans of HeT were Bronze Age copper smiths who ranged from Timna to Anatolia. The serpent image was sacred for them, just as it was for Moses and the people of Israel in the wilderness.

One of the mysteries that archaeologists and anthropologists hope to unravel surrounds the T-shaped monoliths that stand at the perimeter of the sacred mounds at Göbekli Tepe, of which there are about 20. The pattern resembles Stone Hedge with rings of pillars. At the center are twin pillars. The twin pillars and most of the pillars at the periphery are carved to form bas-reliefs of various animals, anthropomorphic figures, and human-animal creatures.

T-shaped pillar 

The vulture, scorpion, horse and lion are found on the stone pillars and they appear to correspond to constellations at a time when Thuban was the pole star. These creatures are commonly found on African images, which suggests that the structure at Gobekli Tepe may have been influenced by priests whose origins were in Africa. The vulture is an important totem among the ancient Nubians.

The earliest pillars are the biggest and most sophisticated in construction and artistry. The later pillars are smaller, less intricate in design and mounted with less precision.

Nate Ramsayer has made a case for the view that the stone pillars might represent individual people. As he states, "This interpretation fits well with the emerging concept of social stratification that can be seen in Anatolia during the PPN at sites like Çayönü and Neval Çori."

If the T-shaped pillars represent humans, they were probably rulers, high ranked priests, or the heads of clans. It may be that clan leaders intended to have stone pillars with the clan's animal totem as a display of wealth or power. Or it may be that the 16-ton limestone pillars represent deified rulers who were venerated as ancestors. Each pillar served as the ruler's presence by which he also represented his clan, before the deity.

The T shape appears to be a very ancient symbol that represented a complex of ideas including heaven, the High God, mankind, and blood. These come together in the Tyet symbol of the Old Kingdom (show above). It consists of a solar orb above a human form (Hathor) and appears to be a variation of the ankh.

Mystery surrounds how the huge pillars were transported from the quarry. Were hundreds of beasts of burden used? If so, why do these animals not appear on the carvings? The animals carved on the pillars include bulls, cranes, ostriches, vultures, lions, serpents and crocodiles, all animals sacred to Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors.

Another mystery surrounds the twin pillars at the center of the shrine. They are superior in quality to the perimeter stones. Tatiana V. Kornienko (Cult Buildings of Northern Mesopotamia) sees the placement of pairs of stones as an important aspect of early cosmology:

The worship of pairs of central objects in ancient sanctuaries or temples is a characteristic feature of a number of early Near Eastern cultures. Such symbolism represents the binary basis and dualism of people’s mythological perception of natural phenomena.

(Note that Kornienko fails to make a distinction between the binary and dualistic worldviews, a distinction that needs to be clarified to correctly trace origins and antecedents.)

Related reading: The Hittites of AnatoliaThe Ostrich in Biblical Symbolism; Megalithic Totemism of the Individual: A new Analysis of Gobekli Tepe's Monumental Pillars; Ethics and Religious Practices of the Afro-Asiatics; The Trapezoid on Ancient Architecture and Technology

Thursday, January 3, 2019

Veneration of the Bear

Alice C. Linsley

Artifacts related to bears have been found globally at the middle and high latitudes. Cave bears lived in the Pyrenees, Alps, and Carpathians. Many bear skeletal remains have been found in caves in these mountain ranges. At that time, (115,000 to 11,700 years ago) humans and bears would have competed for space in rock shelters.

The cave known as "Drachenloch" (Dragon's Lair) was excavated in between 1917 and 1923 by Dr. Emil Bächler. The remains of more than 30,000 cave bears were found. Some accumulations of bear bones were found behind walls. These caches included the long leg bones and more or less complete skulls. Bächler found what he described as stone chests full of bear bones. One of these was about three feet high and covered with a large limestone slab. Inside it were a group of cave bear skulls, all aligned in the same direction. This is one of the more famous discoveries that suggest that Neanderthal humans venerated the bear. Bear veneration is called "arctolatry."

Syrian brown bear
Analysis of prehistoric bone assemblages of bears, mammoths, reindeer, horses, and bulls does suggest that archaic humans were consciously ritualistic in their veneration of the animals with which they co-existed. This is further supported by the intentional red ochre staining of some bear bones. Upper Paleolithic deposits of bear bones recovered from Belgian caves reveal traces of red ochre, and red ochre was generally used for human burials.

This leads to the suggestion that archaic humans regarded bears to be anatomically like humans and applied red ochre to their bones at burial.

Dr. Barry Sanders reports in his anthology Bears, that around 40,000 years ago a "goddess" appeared wearing a bear mask. Between 9000 and 5000 years ago various R1b populations made clay statues of a goddess nursing a bear cub.

The maritime Okhotsk people, who are genetically related to the Ainu, venerated the bear. However, there is no evidence of arctolatry among the Jomon, another group related to the Ainu.

Until about 1945, the Ainu elders of Japan raised a bear cub as a family member until the day it was ritually sacrificed. This photo, taken around 1930, shows an Ainu elder and his wife with their bear and a Japanese visitor. The Ainu elder wears the distinctive knobbed headdress. It is same as those worn by "Miqmac" Ainu elders of Canada and by the ancient Annu chiefs of the ancient Upper Nile.

The Miqmac Ainu are in mtDNA haplogroup X. Approximately, 40% of the Druze population of Galilee is in this group. The genetic sequences of Haplogroup X diverged from Haplogroup N which originated in the region of the Lower Nile.

The Miqmac of eastern Canada say that they came through the British Isles to Finland and Greenland and on to Labrador and the eastern seaboard of Canada.

The Ainu appear to have a point of origin in Africa before 70,000 years ago. The Asia-Africa connection is found in Y-DNA Haplogroup DE. DE is distributed in several geographically distinct clusters and is an estimated 65,000 years old. Immediate subclade, Haplogroup D, is normally found only in eastern Asia, and the other immediate subclade, Haplogroup E, is common in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East.

The antiquity of bear imagery and veneration invites a deeper investigation into the cultural links between the two groups known to venerate the bear: the Ainu of Japan and Eastern Canada and the Celts of Britain and Gaul.

Bears and the Bible

Humans living in the more northern ranges would have had experience of cave bears and polar bears. Populations living in Israel would have had experience of the Syrian brown bear (shown above). 

The Syrian brown bear inhabited the mountains and forests of ancient Anatolia, Turkey and Iran. It roamed the Mediterranean belt forests, and the forests of the Black Sea region. It was known as far south as the Dead Sea. The range of distribution of the Syrian brown bear is shown on this map in blue.

In the book of Job we read of the Bear constellation as God's creation. "Who made the Bear and Orion, the Pleiades and the chambers of the south..." (Job 9:9)

In the Bible she-bears are portrayed as especially dangerous when with their cubs. "Let a man meet a she-bear robbed of her cubs rather than a fool in his folly." (Proverbs 17:12)

Bears appear in the Bible as ferocious beasts who maul children. The savage attack of a bear is thought to symbolize divine judgement. This may be the message of a disturbing story from II Kings:
“From there Elisha went up to Bethel. As he was walking up the path, some small boys came out of the city and harassed him, chanting, ‘Go up, baldy! Go up, baldy!’ He turned around, looked at them, and cursed them in the name of the Lord. Then two female bears came out of the woods and mauled 42 of the children.” II Kings. 2:23,24

The point seems to be that Elisha was a great prophet and those who malign prophets are under divine judgement. This narrative would have served the dual purpose. It warned children about bears and instilled in them a respect for the prophets. But is there more to this account? I believe there is.

The bear is an ancient symbol of shamanic authority, and in II Kings the appearance of two bears with Elisah points to his spiritual authority. Similarly, the appearance of Elijah and Moses with Jesus at the Transfiguration speaks of His authority as Messiah. 

Related reading: Using Totems to Trace Ancestry and Marriage Ties; "The Cult of the Bear Cave" by Phillip G. Chase; "Fossil Bear Bones in the Belgian Upper Paleolithic: The Possibility of a Proto Bear-Ceremonialism" by Mietje Germonpré and Riku Hämäläinen, Arctic Anthropology, Vol. 44, No. 2 (2007), pp. 1-30 (30 pages); Red Ochre People

Monday, October 29, 2018

Who Were the Horite Hebrew?

Horus unites the peoples.

Alice C. Linsley

The mysterious 'Apiru were known also as the Hapiru or Habiru. Habiru is rendered "Hebrew" in English Bibles. These people are the oldest known caste of ruler-priests. In the ancient Egyptian language nibit piru means "lady of the house."

The earliest known references to this group of people are found in ancient Sumerian cuneiform tablets. Ancient Egyptian literature also mentions the 'Apiru. The Habiru are mentioned in the Amarna Letters, a collection of 14th century B.C. letters. The Harris papyrus also speaks of the 'Apriu of Ra at Heliopolis (biblical On), a very prestigious ancient Sun city. Joseph married Asenath, the daughter of the priest of On.

Plutarch wrote that the “priests of the Sun at Heliopolis never carry wine into their temples, for they regard it as indecent for those who are devoted to the service of any god to indulge in the drinking of wine whilst they are under the immediate inspection of their Lord and King. The priests of the other deities are not so scrupulous in this respect, for they use it, though sparingly.”

The Hebrew priests were unique in the ancient world and greatly respected. Therefore, they were sought as servants of the early high kings who constructed palaces and royal temple complexes at what the Bible terms "high places."

The Hapiru served in the ancient Sun temples and shrines. These were build at high elevations near major sources of water. A temple was the mansion (hâît) or the house (pirû) of the god, so Ha'piru refers to those who served at the god's house. The ancient Dravidians referred to their East-oriented temples as Opiru, meaning "Sun House."

The Habiru priests were to meet certain requirements while on duty. They wore only linen or clothing made from plants. Clothing made from animals was not permitted. This is one of the differences between the priest and the shaman. They shaved their heads and bodies daily. Cold water baths were taken several times a day. They practiced sexual abstinence before and while serving at the temple or shrine.

Evidence of the religious devotion and ubiquitous presence of the Horite Hebrew is reflected in the many place names that are associated with Horus: Haryana means "Horus is the vehicle." Harappa means "Horus is Father" in Dravidian. In southern India, it was the custom to build temporary fire altars in the shape of a falcon, the totem of Horus. According to the Shulba Sutras, this is the sign for those who desire heaven: "he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."

Because the "piru" housed the deity, only the priest was permitted to enter the most sacred area of the temple. The people prayed at the gate or in the court. They directed their prayers toward the rising Sun, the emblem of the Creator and his Son. Their ruler-priest acted as a mediator between the people and God.

The term "Habiru" does not designate a tribal group, but rather a caste of priests who were dispersed among widely in the service of the Mighty Men of Old (Genesis 10). These are the first known potentates or High Kings. Among them were the Kushite kingdom builder Nimrod, who is probably Sargon.

Among the Habiru there were different groups, depending on the deity they served. Abraham's Hebrew people were devotees of the High God whose son was called Horus. Thus they are called "Horite" Hebrew. Some of their rulers are listed in Genesis 36.

The priests of Ani/Enki (Mesopotamian) or Ra/Horus (Nilotic) were identified as Horite Hapiru. They spread their devotion to Horus, the son of God, across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. In The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid and Coffin Texts we find fascinating details about Horus. He was said to be co-equal with the Father and to die and rise on the third day.

Horus was conceived by the overshadowing of the Sun. That is shown in this image of his mother, Hathor. According to Luke 1, the Virgin Mary conceived by divine overshadowing.

The offspring of the Woman of Genesis 3:15 is called the "Seed." Some argue that Jesus never claimed to be the Messiah, the Son of God. However, he identified himself as the Seed when he told his disciples that he was going to Jerusalem to die. "The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. I tell you the truth, unless a kernal/grain/seed of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds." (John 12:23)

The Messianic expectation of Genesis 3:15 was expressed about 1000 years before the Psalms in the ancient Pyramid Texts. "Horus has shattered (tbb, crushed) the mouth of the serpent with the sole of his foot (tbw)" Utterance 388

Consider how Horus describes himself in the ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts (148):

I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of ‘Red Cloak’. 

Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a clear messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at My right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”

Horus unites the peoples.This is why he is said to wear the double crown. "Then take silver and gold, and make crowns [ataroth], and set them on the head of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest..." Zechariah 6:11

The ruler-priest Yeshua (Joshua/Jesus) wears the double crown as a sign that he unites the peoples. The double crown was worn by the rulers of a united Nile Valley. The red crown (desher) represents Lower Nile (Egypt) and the white crown (nefer) represents Upper Nile (ancient Nubia). After the unification of the Upper and Lower Nile regions the two crowns were joined to represent a unified Egypt.

The Horite Hebrew believed that heavenly recognition of a people depended on the righteousness of their ruler-priest. Therefore purity of life was highly valued. The proof of heavenly recognition and acceptance was the resurrection of the dead ruler-priest on the third day.

The New Testament speaks about Jesus as the ruler-priest. He is the firstborn from the grave and by his resurrection He delivers to the Father a "peculiar people." He leads us in the ascent to the Father where we receive heavenly recognition because we belong to Him.

Heavenly recognition for the Horite Hebrew was never an individual prospect. Heavenly recognition came to the people through the righteousness of their ruler-priest. Horite rulers took this seriously, some more than others. The best were heavenly minded and the worst were so earthy minded that they shed much blood enlarging their territories. All failed to be the Ruler-Priest who rose from the dead. Therefore, none have the power to deliver captives from the grave and to lead them to the throne of heaven (Ps. 68:18; Ps. 7:7; Eph. 4:8). The evidence of a long-standing Tradition points to the Son of God, Jesus, who alone fits the pattern of Messianic expectation.

Tuesday, October 23, 2018

Decoding the Longevity of the Genesis Rulers

Alice C. Linsley

In his Homilies on the Psalms, St. Jerome notes: "I am reviewing carefully the places in Scripture where I might find old age mentioned for the first time. Adam lived for 930 years, yet he is not called an old man. Methuselah's life was 969 years, and he is not called an old man. I am coming down all the way to the flood, and after the flood for almost three thousand years, and I find no one who has been called old. Abraham is the first, and certainly he was much younger than Methuselah." (HP 21)

Jerome's observation is significant. Abraham was old, probably about 75 years at his dead. This was a long lifespan for people living about 5000 years ago. Paleopathology indicates that the lifespan of ancient peoples living in an area extending from North Africa to Turkey and Mesopotamia was about 34 years. This applies to peoples in the Late Paleolithic - 30,000 to 9,000 B.C., the Mesolithic - 9,000 to 7,000 B.C. and the Early Neolithic - 7,000 to 5,000 B.C. This would apply to all the rulers listed in Genesis, although rulers tended to live longer than the average people.

One might argue that the patriarchs enjoyed extraordinary longevity by divine providence. Were this the case we would want to know why God’s providence is limited to a specific time, people and place. In other words, the singularity of the extraordinary longevity of these patriarchs is a miracle and therefore beyond scientific explanation. While I believe in miracles, I find this explanation unlikely and without biblical support.

As St. Jerome noted, the only patriarch said to have died at an old age was Abraham (Gen. 24:1, 25:8). This means that the number of years attributed to the Genesis rulers are not to be taken as literal years. They appear to represent ideas about these people and are symbolic.

This is supported by the assignment of 930 years to Adam, an anti-type of Jesus Christ. Paul wrote: “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive. But each one in his own order: Christ the first fruits, afterward those who are Christ’s at his coming. Then comes the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father…” (1 Corinthians 15:22-24a)

The number 9 is the last number before beginning the 1-10 counting cycle again. The 3 represents unity of body, mind and soul, and the unity of the Godhead. The symbolism of the zero is likely linked to the solar cycle and has numerical symbolism older than Gematria which has no notation for zero.

Gematria is influenced by Greek sacred geometry and is found in Plato’s writings. Doubtless, Plato was influenced by the geometry of Pythagoras, since he had studied in Egypt, but Pythagoras’ work came much later than the period in which Abraham’s ancestors lived.

In Gematria, numeric values are found by adding the numeric values of the Greek or Hebrew letters. But the numbers in the Genesis King lists are not based on the letters of the Greek or Hebrew alphabets, since these alphabets didn’t exist in Abraham’s time. The number symbolism is likely based on an older system, but it does not help us to understand the symbolism of Kenan's 910 years, Seth's 600 years and Adam’s 930 years because it has no notation for zero and because it is based on alphabets which were unknown to the ancient Horite Hebrew.

In Gematria the sum of Methuselah's 969 days would be represented by the numerical values of the Greek letters omega and stigma, letters unknown to Abraham and his ancestors. Ultimately, Gematria is not helpful in interpreting the number symbolism of Abraham’s Horite Hebrew people.

It is fairly certain that the meaning of the extraordinary numbers in Genesis 4 and 5 is linked to astronomical observations of the ancient astronomer priests who were in the service of the Mighty Men of Old, but there is still much to be learned about this.

It may be that we have to look to the earlier Nilotic solar symbolism. In Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, the zero is a solar symbol and the emblem of the creator God, called Ra ("Ani" in Akkadian). The solar symbol O might signify the divine status of the ruler or it could indicate a solar year of 365 daily cycles.

The ancient Nilotes and the Egyptians had a large inventory of solar symbolism because of their religious understanding of the High God whose emblem was the Sun. Their main ideogram for "Sun" was a representation of the solar disk, such as this:

Is it possible that the zero is simply a solar symbol? The O is for modern thinker a place holder, but it may have represented the sum of the days in a solar cycle, that is 3+6+5 =14 years. Kenan's 910 might be 91+14 = 105 years. Seth's 600 might be 6+14+14 = 44. Adam's 930 years might be 9+3+14 = 26 years.

These are reasonable spans for ancient rulers. However, what are we do with ages that do not have any 0's? Consider Methuselah's son, Lamech the Younger. He is said to have lived 777 years. Did he live only 21 years?

The matter is further complicated by the discrepancy between the various recensions. Lamech the Younger is assigned different numbers. In the Septuagint he is said to have lived 753 years. In the Samaritan Pentateuch, he is said to have lived 653 years, and in the Masoretic Text he is said to have lived 777. No other man in the Genesis king lists has such a discrepancy in the number of years assigned.

The term "Lamech" is a variant of the Akkadian word la-melech, meaning "priest of the King." Hundreds of seals have been found inscribed with la-melech. La-melech seals typically had the image of a scarab (dung beetle) or a sun disc. Both were emblems of the Creator and his Son. The sun disc and scarab were used as a royal seal by the Kings of Judah. Hezekiah's seal is an example.

Friday, October 19, 2018

INDEX of Topics at Biblical Anthropology

Learn to read the Bible through the lens of cultural anthropology and you will never read it the same way again. If you are new to this research, it would be helpful to begin with these articles:

Biblical Anthropology is the Work of Christians
The Bible and Science (4-part series)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (7-part series)

INDEX  (Current as of 1 February 2019)

The Calling of Abraham
Abraham's Horite Hebrew Ancestors
The Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern of Abraham's People
Abraham's Complaint
Abraham's Authority and Ancient Law Codes
Abraham, Descendant of Both Ham and Shem
Roads Connected Abraham's Territory
What Language Did Abraham Speak?
Who Was the Bigger Liar, Abraham or Isaac?
Were Abraham's Ancestors Rulers or Refugees?
Abraham and Job: Horite Hebrew Rulers

Activities of Ancient and Archaic Peoples
Sheep Cotes
Swimming and Diving
Brick Making in the Ancient World
Textiles in the Ancient World
Silk Production 8000 Years Ago
The Ancient Egyptians Were Sea Faring
The Northern Range of Archaic Humans
Some Marks of Prehistoric Religion
The Stone Age
The Age of the Earth and Evidence of Human Occupation

Blaming Original Sin on Adam
The Historical Adam
Adam Was a Red Man
Adam and Eve: The Blood and the Birther
Elder Joseph on Adam and Eve

The Africa Chesterton Never Knew
The Shrine City of Nekhen
Why Nekhen is Anthropologically Significant
The Mega-Nile
Africa is Archaeologically Rich
Sudan is Archaeologically Rich

Peleg: Time of Division
The Joktanite Tribes
The Jebusites Unveiled
Intermarriage Between the Dedanites and the Edomites

Interview with Christopher Ehret
Ethics and Religious Practices of the Afro-Asiatics
Afro-Asiatic Rulers and the Celestial Archetype
Nimrod, an Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder
Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Building
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion
The Spread of the Afro-Asiatic Worldview
Afro-Asiatic Symbols that Speak of God

Horticulture in the Ancient World
Olive Oil Production in the Ancient World
Threshing Floors and Solar Symbolism
32,000 Year Flour Processing Plant
Ancient Nubians Used Plants Medicinally
The Judean Palm

Solving the Ainu Mystery
The Annu of On (Iunu)
The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection
Abraham's Ainu Ancestors
Ainu at Genetic Center
A Kindling of Ancient Memory
The Bible and the Question of Race

Akkadian Lexicon

The Amorites: Caste of Royal Scribes
The Amorites: Aryan Canaanites?
The Ar Clans

The Prehistoric Anatolians Lived Well
The Last Days of Hattusa
The Luwian: Another Theory
A New Hieroglyphic Inscription from Pancarlı Höyük
The Trapezoid in Ancient Architecture and Technology
ÇATALHÖYÜK 2005 ARCHIVE: Çatalhöyük Research Project

Ancestor Veneration
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
The Nephilim: Angels or Ancestors
The Bosom of Abraham
Recovering the African Background of Genesis
The T-Shape Pillars of Gobekli Tepe

Animals in the Bible
Celestial Horses
Veneration of the Bear
The Animals on Noah's Ark
The Rooster in Biblical Symbolism
Ram Symbolism of the Ancient World
The Red Heifer
The Ostrich in Biblical Symbolism
Did Abraham's People Have "Easter" Eggs?
The Fatted Calf
Why Cows Were Sacred in the Ancient World
Elephants in the Time of Abraham
Abraham's Camels
Dogs in the Bible
Noah's Birds
The Lion and Judah
Jesus: From Lamb to Ram
Animal Totems Used to Trace Ancestry
Goats: In Memory of Ellen and Gordon Hatcher

Why Nekhen is Anthropologically Significant
Genesis Through the Lens of Anthropology
Anthropological Evidence for the Exodus

Apocalyptic Literature
The Seventh Seal and Silence in Heaven
The Seven Bowls of Revelation 16
Number Symbolism in Revelation
The Dragon and the Beast of Revelation
Revelation 12: The Woman, The Child, and the Dragon
The Signs of Revelation 12
Christ's Message to the Seven Churches

The Aaronic Blessing Speaks of the Gospel
Moses' Wives and Brothers

The Ancient Tumuli of Nobles
The Pillars of Solomon's Temple
The T-Shape Pillars of Gobekli Tepe
Sun Cities of the Ancient World
Prehistoric Obelisk Found in Judah
Circumcision and Circles of Standing Stones in the Judean Hills
Horite Temples
The High Places
The Shrine City of Nekhen
77,000-Year Settlement in Sudan
Europe's Oldest Prehistoric Town Unearthed in Bulgaria
The Trapezoid in Ancient Architecture
Sheep Cotes

Ark of the Covenant
The Ark Rested in Bethlehem
Was the Pattern of the Ark Original?

Ascendancy Patterns

The Religion of the Archaic Rulers
The Celestial Dance Observed by the Magi
Who Were the Wise Men?
The Sun and the Moon in Genesis
Ancient African Astronomers
Reality is Cross Shaped

Axial Age
Understanding the Axial Age

Which Bethlehem was Jesus' Birthplace?
The Ark Rested in Bethlehem
Bethlehem in the Time of Abraham
Who Were the Wise Men?
Horite Expectation and the Star of Bethlehem
Middle Bronze Age Tomb Found in Bethlehem

Biblical Anthropology
Dismantling Outdated Interpretations
Biblical Anthropology is the Work of Christians
What is Biblical Anthropology?
An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Support Biblical Anthropology Research
Biblical Anthropology, the Science, Not Speculative Theology
Talking on Facebook about Biblical Anthropology
Biblical Anthropology and the Question of Common Ancestry
Biblical Anthropology is Science
Is Biblical Anthropology an Oxymoron?
Biblical Anthropologists Discuss Darwin
The Bible and Anthropological Investigation
What Does a Biblical Anthropologist Do?
Biblical Anthropology and Antecedents
Derrida and Biblical Anthropology
Charles Kraft on Why Few Christians Are Cultural Anthropologists
Dean Arnold on Christian Anthropologists

Biblical Names
Royal Names in Genesis
The Nubian Context of YHWH
An African Reflects on Biblical Names
African Naming Practices
Is Enoch a Royal Title
Conversation about Hausa Origins
Conversation about Igbo Origins

Biblical Worldview
The Biblical Worldview
Science and Miracles
The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology

Binary Distinctions
Binary Sets and the Binary Worldview
Does the Binary Feature Signal Greater Complexity?
The Binary Aspect of the Biblical Worldview
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Binary Sets in the Ancient World
Circumcision and Binary Distinctions
Blood and Binary Distinctions

Blood Symbolism
Comparing Cosmologies to Trace Origins
Blood and Crosses
Water and Blood
Mining Blood
The Blood of Jesus
The Pleromic Blood and Gender Distinctions
Blood and Binary Distinctions

Threshing Floors and Solar Symbols

Burial Practices
Red Ocher People
Kushite Burial Practices
The Graves of Gebel el Silsila
The Ancient Tumuli of Nobles
Burial Practices of the Rulers of Old
Stone Work of the Ancient World
The Priesthood in England - Part 3

Who Did Cain Marry?
Cain as Ruler
The Mark of Cain

Does the Gezer Calendar Reflect Nilotic Farming Practices?

The Canaanite Y and the Phaistos Disk
The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y
The Peoples of Canaan
Who Were the Canaanites?

Evidence of Castes in the Book of Ruth
The Origin of Castes
Religion of the Archaic Rulers

Christ in Biblical Anthropology
The Giving God
The Eternal Son Comes Down From Heaven
The Christ as Alpha and the Omega
The Risen Christ in Genesis

Circumcision and Standing Stones in the Judean Hills
Why Zipporah Circumcised Her Son
The Origin of Circumcision
Circumcision and Binary Distinctions
A Bridegroom of Blood

Twin Cities of the Ancient World
Sun Cities of the Ancient World
The High Places
The Shrine City of Nekhen

When the Sahara was Wet
Genesis and Climate Change
Water Systems Connected Nile and Central Africa
Climate Cycles and Noah's Flood
The Jordan River in Abraham's Time
Kansas Science Bill Faces Defeat
Rick Pott's Variability Hypothesis has Biblical support
Antarctica Once Had Baobab Trees

Comparing Cosmologies to Trace Origins
The Cosmology of Abraham's People
Biblical Cosmology and Ethics
A Flat Earth and the Biblical Evidence
The Pillars of the Earth

The Age of the Earth and the Evidence of Human Occupation
Conversation on Creationism About False Choices
Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 1
Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 2

Hanged on a Tree

David's Bloodline
David's Royal City
The Ethnicity of Abraham and David
David's Zion Found

Gathered to His people
The Bosom of Abraham
Sheol and the Second Death
The Question of Immortality
Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection

The Judges Samuel, Deborah and Huldah
Deborah the Warrior Bee
The Precedent for Women Rulers in Ancient Egypt

Intermarriage Between the Dedanites and the Edomites
The Afro-Arabian Dedanites
Who Were the Dedanites?

Derrida, Jacques
Derrida and Biblical Anthropology
Levi-Strauss and Derrida on Binary Oppositions

How the Deuteronomist Changes the Genesis Narrative
Afro-Asiatic Influences on the Deuteronomist Historian
Fundamentalism and Syncretism in Hebrew History
The Reconceptualization of Kingship in Deuteronomy

DNA Studies
Haplogroups of Interest to Biblical Anthropologists
Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)
Tut's Father Married His Cousin
Ethiopian DNA Study Ignores Significant Data
Ashkenazi Represent Judeo-Khazar Admixture
A Kindling of Ancient Memory
Abraham: Descendant of Both Shem and Ham
Migrations Out of Africa
Denisovan Populations
Denisovan Finds Create a Stir
Genetic Risks in Cousin Marriage
Genetic Adam Never Knew Genetic Eve
DNA Research Confirms Kushite Migration
DNA Confirms Mixed Ancestry of Jews
Mitochondrial Eve
Genesis and Genetics
Sub-Saharan DNA of Modern Jews
DNA Research Confirms Kushite Migration
Overview of Human Origins
A Flawed Paradigm
Is Scientific Dating of Fossils Reliable?
Genesis on Human Origins
The Making of Man
Genesis: Is It Really About Human Origins?
Q and A on Creation vs Evolution
Genesis and Genetics
Hunter-Gatherer Study Inconclusive
Ethiopian DNA Study Ignores Significant Data
A Kindling of Ancient Memory
Abraham: Descendant of Both Shem and Ham
Migrations Out of Africa
80,000 Year African Ancestor of Chinese Men

Earth Science
Walking Rocks
Pillars of the Earth
Geologic Studies Confirm Biblical Data

Who Was Eber?
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants

Ecclesiasticus (Wisdom of Ben Sirach)
The Chiastic Center of Ecclesiasticus
The Wisdom of Jesus Ben Sirach

The Antiquity of the Edomite Rulers
Edom and Copper
Edo, Edom, Idumea
Edom and the Horites
The Edomites and the Color Red
Ancient Seats of Wisdom
Two Named Esau
Petra Reflects Horite Beliefs

Ancient Egyptian Lexicon
Etymology of the Vav
Egypt in the Christmas Narrative
Exploring Hosea 11:1 - "Out of Egypt"
The Sudanese Origins of Pharaonic Egypt
Egypt in the Book of Genesis
Ancient Egyptians Were Seafaring
Medical Care in Ancient Egypt
The World's Oldest Book Found in Egypt

The Ethnicity of David and Abraham
Who Were the Kushites?
Ashkenazi Represent Judeo-Khazar Admixture
Were the Natufians Kushites?
The Bible and the Question of Race
Who Were the Horites?
What Color Was Abraham?
Abraham and the Mahra/Masek

Eve in the Bible
The Biblical Meaning of Eve
Eve's Sin

Anthropological Evidence for the Exodus
Number Symbolism in the Bible

Ezekiel's New Temple

Fertility/ Fertility Images
Fertility Images Among Abraham's People
Sacred Mountains and Pillars
Peaks and Valleys in Biblical Symbolism

Food Prohibitions and Religious Belief
Horticulture in the Ancient World
Olive Oil Production in the Ancient World
Nubian Beer
Wine Use in Antiquity
Why Cows Were Sacred in the Ancient World

The Significance of Galilee in Matthew's Gospel

Genesis (Book)
Genesis in Anthropological Perspective
Decoding the Longevity of the Genesis Rulers
Index of Topics on Genesis
The African Cultural Context of Genesis 1-12
Christ's Resurrection in Genesis

The Gezer Calendar
Circumcision and Standing Stones in the Judean Hills
The Peoples of Canaan

Hebrews (Book)
Paul to Hebrew Christians: Hold Fast the Faith of Your Horim
Paul to Hebrew Christians: Persevere in Hope
Hebrews 10: Christ's All Sufficient Sacrifice

High Places (Tamana/Ophel/Oppidum/Kar/Car)
The High Places
Karampetsos, Karambet, Karoutes
Kushite Shrines

The Hittites of Anatolia
Abraham and the Hittites
The Last Days of Hattusa

Who Were the Horites?
Horite Temples
Was King Arthur a Horite Ruler?
The Nubian Context of YHWH
Totems and Tracing the Horites in History
Jesus' Horite Lineage
Samuel's Horite Family
The Men Who Spied on Canaan
Meroe on the Orontes

Exploring Hosea 11:1 - "Out of Egypt"

Hungarian (Magyar)
Hungarian Lexicon

Human Origins
Fully Human From the Beginning
Overview of Human Origins
A Scientific Timeline of Genesis
Genesis and Genetics
Q and A on Creation and Evolution
Is Genesis Really About Human Origins?
Getting the facts About Human Origins

Graven Images and Idols
Fundamentalism and Syncretism in Hebrew History
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestral Figurines?

The Jebusites Unveiled
Jerusalem Under the Jebusites
The Jebu, Sheba, Joktan Confederation
The Priestly Order of Melchizedek

Who Was Jethro?
A Bridegroom of Blood

Jesus' Horite Lineage
Who is Jesus?
Mother and Son Pierced

The Jerusalem that David Knew
Jerusalem Under the Jebusites
Jerusalem Pilgrimage

Ashkenazi Represent Judeo-Khazar Admixture
Sub-Saharan DNA of Modern Jews

Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers
Righteous Job and His Kin
Job's Friends and Their Contribution to the Message of Job

The Men Who Spied on Canaan

The Lion and Judah

Are Rabbinic Interpretations of the Bible Accurate?
Did Jews Live in Dynastic Egypt?
Challenge to Shaye Cohen's Portrayal of Abraham as the First Jew
Member of Israel's Parliament Destroys Bible
Rabbi Hirsch on the Nations
The Talmud on the Virgin Mary
Talmudic Legend vs Biblical History

The Scatter-Gather Motif in Judges

Hazor's Destruction: Another Theory

The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 1 - Introduction)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 2 - Descent)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 3 - Inheritance)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 4 - Right to Rule)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 5 - Residence)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 6 - Governance)
Denying Marriage: A cunning royal strategy

Kinship Analysis
Lamech Segment Analysis
The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
The Pattern of Two Wives
The Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern of Abraham's People
Denying Marriage: A cunning royal strategy
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
The Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried
Kain and Seth Married the Daughters of Nok
Methuselah's Wife
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
Abraham's First-Born Son
The Genesis King Lists
Joseph's Relationship to Mary

Identifying King Tut's Father
Royal Prayers
The Kushite Marriage Pattern Drove Kushite Expansion

Who Were the Levites?

Mary (Theotokos)
Was the Virgin Mary a Dedicated Royal Woman?
The Theotokos and Weaving
The Virgin Mary's Ancestry
Mother and Son Pierced

The Lineage of Melchizedek
The Order of Melchizedek
Who Laid the Foundations of Science?

Metal workers
Red and Black Smiths
Copper and Iron
Afro-Asiatic Metal Workers

The Priests of Midian
Who Was Jethro?

The Migration of Abraham's Ancestors
DNA Research Confirms Kushite Migration
Does Genesis 10 Describe the Ainu Dispersion?

Miners Venerated Hathor
V. Kassianidou and A. Bernard Knapp, Archaeometallurgy in the Mediterranean: The Social Context of Mining, Technology and Trade
Copper and Iron

Moses the Horite Hebrew Priest
Moses's Horite Family
Moses's Wives and Brothers
The Serpent of Moses's Staff
A Bridegroom of Blood
Mosaic Authorship?
Moses and Abraham: Different Origins of Israel?

Lyre Music from 1400 BC

The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
Eliade Was Right About Celestial Archetypes
The Mythological Core of Christianity
Tehut's Victory Over Tehom
Heaven or Heavens: Does It Matter?

Are the Names Nahor and Nehesi Related?

The Priests of Nazareth
Jesus of Nazareth, Son of David
Jesus' Home in Nazareth?
The Nazareth-Egypt Connection

Neolithic Industries and Technologies
Wine Making
Seeds from Heaven
Afro-Asiatic Metal Workers
Ancient Miners Venerated Hathor
Stone Work of the Ancient World
Genesis and the Stone Age

Menes the Law Giver
Boats and Cows of the Proto-Saharans
Was Noah Mesopotamian or Proto-Saharan?
Sudan is Archaeologically Rich
Nilo-Saharan and Saharo-Nubian Populations

As in the days of Noah
Noah's Homeland
Noah's Flood: Where and When?
Saving Noah
Was Earth Repopulated After Noah's Flood?
Noah's Descendants
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
Noah's Birds
Noah's Dog
Forty Days and Forty Nights
Noah: The Hollywood Version
Was Noah Mesopotamian or Proto-Saharan?
How Big Was Noah's Flood?

The Nubian Moiety
Nubian Warriors
The Nubian Context of YHWH
The Land of Wawat
Nubian Captives
Nubians Brewed Beer with Tetracycline

Number Symbolism
The Symbolism of Numbers in the Bible
Number Symbolism in the BibleNumber Symbolism in Revelation
Three Sons and The Son
Is Gematria Helpful in Decoding the Genesis King Lists?

Order of Creation
Hierarchy in Creation
Genesis and Genetics
Plato and Intelligent Design

Original Sin/Inherited Guilt
Inherited Guilt of Infection of Death?
What Happened in the Garden?
Is "Good and Evil" a Biblical Merism?

Facts and Theories About the Philistines

Who Were the Horite Hebrew?
The Priesthood is About the Blood
Why Women Were Never Priests
Physician Priests of Antiquity
Religion of the Archaic Rulers
The Priesthood in England - Part 1
The Priesthood in England - Part 2
The Priesthood in England - Part 3
The Priesthood in England - Conclusion
Horite Priests and the Hapiru
Horite Territory
The Origins of the Priesthood
Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers
Shepherd Priests
The Horite Conception of the Priesthood
God as Male Priest
The Daughters of Priests
Shamans and Priests

Questions Asked
Questions Asked by Primitive Man
Questions High Schoolers Ask About Genesis
More Questions About Sex
Is the Enoch Mentioned in the Sumerian Text the Enoch of Genesis?

Deified Rulers and Resurrection
The Sting of Death
Resurrection as Mirrored Reality
Matthew's Testimony Concerning the Empty Tomb
What Abraham Discovered on Mount Moriah

Revelation (Book)
Christ's Message to the Seven Churches
Number Symbolism in Revelation
The Signs of Revelation 12
The Woman, the Child and the Dragon
The Dragon and the Beast
The Seven Bowls of Revelation 16
The Seventh Seal and Silence in Heaven

Rulers of the Ancient World
Royal Treaties
Archaic and Ancient Symbols of Authority
The Genesis King Lists
Nimrod, Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder
The Mighty Men of Old

The Continuing Debate of Child Sacrifice
Where Did Animal Sacrifice Originate?
Did Abraham Intend to Sacrifice Isaac?

Sacred Spaces
Sheep Cotes
Threshing Floors
Mount Mary and the Origins of Life
Sacred Mountains
Mount Moriah
Mount Meru
Reading the Magdala Stone

Was Constantine a Saka Ruler?

Samuel's Horite Family

Seals (bullae)
3000 Year Temple Seal
Yahu Seals

The Ruler Seth
Seth's Father and Abraham's Mother

Thoughts on Sex
More Thoughts on Sex

Solar Symbolism
The Sun and the Sacred
The Brentford Shard: Chi Rho or Solar Symbol?
The Gourd in Biblical Symbolism
Threshing Floors and Solar Symbolism
Sun Symbolism and Blood Guilt
A Tent for the Sun
The Dung Beetle and Heavenly Lights
The Sun and Celestial Horses

Song of Songs
Roles Reversed in the Song of Songs?

Who Laid the Foundations of Science
The Tool Makers of Kathu
58,000 Year South African Pigment and Glue Factory
500,000 Year Engraved Shell
Flour Processing 32,000 Years Ago
The Trapezoid in Ancient Architecture and Technology
Mining Blood
Paleolithic Industries at Jabal Harun (Aaron's Mountain)
Archaic Shell Technology

Tehom: Tihama of the Hadramout and Aden
The Victory of Tehut over Tehom

The Pillars of Solomon's Temple
The Temple of the Winged Lions
Destruction of the Temple: Rabbinic Interpretations
Horite Temples
Orientations of Nilo-Saharan Monuments

Meroe on the Orontes
Twin Cities of the Ancient World
Standing Stones

Totems and Tracing the Horites in History
Using Totems to Trace Ancestry and Marriage Ties
Totemism in the Old Testament
The Lion and Judah

Received Tradition: Pushing back the veil of time
Religion of the Archaic Rulers

The Judean Palm
What Happened to the Cedars of Lebanon?
Trees as Boundary Markers
The Trees of Prophets
Trees of the Bible
The Tree of Life

Tribes and Clans
The Edomites and the Color Red
Edom and the Horites
Extant Biblical Tribes and Clans
Jebusites: Extant Biblical Tribe
The Peoples of Canaan
The Clans of Ar

Two Wives
Horite Hebrew Rulers with Two Wives
The Pattern of Two Wives

Uniqueness of the Bible
Sacred Writings and the Uniqueness of the Bible
The Bible and Imagined Morality

Water and Blood
Theories of Primal Substance
The Stirring of the Water

Seats of Wisdom
Ancient Wisdom, Science and Technology
The Wisdom of Ben Sira
The Chiastic Center of Ecclesiasticus
Who Were the Wise Men?

Women Prophets and Shamans
Sister Wives and Cousin Wives

Written Communications in Antiquity
Yahu Seals
Paleolithic Ostrich Eggshells
The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y
Thamudic Scripts
Thamudic and Nabataean Inscriptions from Umm Al-Rasas by M.C.A. Macdonald
Old North Arabian Scripts
The Writing System of Menes, the First Law Giver
The World's Oldest Books
The Proto-Elamite Script
Canaanite Origins of the Alphabet
Early Written Signs
The Origins of Written Communication
The Writing of David's Realm
Enigmatic Petroglyphs of Saudi Arabia's High Plateau
The Dispilio Tablet

David's Zion Found

Why Zipporah Circumcised Her Son
A Bridegroom of Blood or a Groom Protected by Blood?
Why Zipporah Used a Flint Knife