Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Support Biblical Anthropology Research

Alice C. Linsley

Every day I receive emails from people telling me that they have found the approach of Biblical Anthropology helpful in gaining a clearer understanding of the Bible's content. Often they have questions that I attempt to answer, and sometimes they provide me with extremely important data that advances this research. This is enormously rewarding!

I would like to say THANK YOU to those who help make this research possible. I now ask you to consider being a patron of this work. It's an opportunity to support what you believe in and to be part of a worldwide community of supporters for only $3.00 a month. If you're reading this and have not joined the Biblical Anthropology crowdfunding campaign, please consider doing so. Your support makes it possible for me to focus on this ground-breaking research.

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Thank you for supporting this effort to build a significant database in this emerging field.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Biblical Anthropology the science...not speculative theology

Alice C. Linsley

What follows is a portion of a conversation I had recently with a friend on Facebook.

Bill: Didn't know if you had seen this book yet, but I know you love Christian Anthropology,

Alice: I haven't read the book, but I believe the author is using the term "anthropology" in a theological sense. My work is a science that draws on anthropologically significant data in the Bible to construct a more accurate picture of Abraham's ancestors and the antecedents of Messianic hope/expectation.

Bill: Okay. What types of data are antecedents to Messianic hope/expectation?

Alice: Archaic solar imagery, cow horns, divine appointment of archaic rulers, the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horite Hebrew (Habiru), etc. All of these have been explored through years of extensive research which I have published at various sites. Here is an example. To pursue further, read the articles under "related reading" at the bottom of the post.

Bill: Ugh,'s getting deep in here. I better put on my water wings! Thanks Alice Linsley, I'll read this!

Alice: You will find this scientific approach to be much less speculative than the approach of "theological" anthropology.

Monday, May 16, 2016

The Sun and Celestial Horses

This gold Scythian belt title was recovered at Mingachevir. It dates to the 7th century BC.

Alice C. Linsley

In the ancient world, horses were associated with the power of the Supreme Deity whose emblem was the Sun. The Supreme Deity was known by many names, among them Helius who had a son named Phaeton, which means the "shining one." Phaeton declared, "My father is the Sun God Helius who drives the horses of the day and the golden chariot. He lights up the sky." One day Phaeton asked his father, "let me drive the horses of the Sun..."

The association of horses and the firey chariot are also found in the Hebrew Bible. Consider 2 Kings 2:11 - "As they [Elijah and Elisha] were walking along and talking together, suddenly a chariot of fire and horses of fire appeared and separated the two of them, and Elijah went up to heaven in a whirlwind."

Consider also Isaiah 66:16 - "For behold, the Lord will come in fire and His chariots like the whirlwind, to render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames of fire."

The Krkava stone or Triglav stone
The divinely appointed ruler is often shown with the sun as a halo. An example is the Krkava or Triglav Stone (shown right). This depicts the Righteous Ruler who overcomes suffering and death and wins victory over his enemies. This is the basic plot of the Messianic narrative. The divine hero is a rider with the sun as a halo surrounding him. This was a sign of divine appointment.

The victor is called the "Good God" because he gives gifts to his people. Paul makes reference to this received tradition when, alluding to Psalm 68:28, he writes, This is why it says: "When he ascended on high, he led captives and gave gifts to his people." (Ephesians 4:8)

Other names for the divine hero include Hor, Horus, Hromi Daba, Crom Dubh, Grom Div. All of these names are associated with the sun and the sky. As early as 2000 BC there is an association with the spoked wheel, another solar image. Votive wheels were offered at shrines, buried in royal tombs, or worn as amulets. Bronze Age wheel pendants or sun crosses usually had four spokes. These are a variation of the 6-prong solar symbol found on archaic rock shelters dating to the oldest period of Vinča culture (6th-5th millennia BC).

The spoked solar image was found among the Hittites who buried great warriors in their chariots. It was found among the ancient peoples of Gaul, as shown on this southern Chalcolithic anthropomorphic stele with an eight prong solar symbol. This was discovered during an archaeological excavation on the Rocher des Doms, Avignon.

As the wheel rumbles across rough terrain, so the sky rumbles with thunder. That is why the divine hero is also sometines associated with thunder, as in the case of Perun, and the Hittite/Luwian Teshub who is depicted holding a triple thunderbolt. The connection between celestial horses and a mighty voice in heaven is expressed in Psalm 68:33 - "To Him who rides upon the highest heavens, which are from ancient times; Behold, He speaks forth with His voice, a mighty voice."

Teshub's animal totem was the bull and throughout Anatolia he is shown wearing cow horns as a sign of divine appointment. His horses, named Seri and Hurri, drew his chariot. He is a divine hero of the Anu/Ainu, whose point of origin is the Nile Valley.

The 3,000-year-old Uffington White Horse
The Horites or Hurri/Hurrians of Antalolia were known for their breeding and training of horses. The name of a region with a large concentration of Hurri was called "horse land" or Ishuwa. A text discovered at Hattusa deals with the training of horses. The man called Kikkuli was responsible for the horse training. Kikuli is a common name among Nilotic peoples. It refers to one who subdues or tames a horse. Kikuli is derived from the Akkadian kikuli and kikildu which is to intimidate or to train a horse/camel, etc.

Wide distribution of horse/Sun myths
Joseph Campbell identified this narrative of the hero who dies and rises, leading his people to victory as a "monomyth" because of the wide distribution of the common elements and themes. Campbell's believed that all mythic narratives are variations of a single great story. He based this on his many years of collection and critical analysis of myths. Campbell observed that a common pattern exists beneath the narrative elements of most great myths, regardless of their origin or time of creation. The elements found in common are also the oldest.

A principle of anthropology holds that the more widely dispersed a narrative, the older it is. By this principle it is possible to identify the Messianic narrative as extremely ancient. The point of origin appears to be among the Nilotic peoples and their dispersed descendants for whom the Sun was the Creator's emblem.

The Nilotes were known for their breeding and training of quality horses, as is evident in Deuteronomy 17:16 - "Moreover, he shall not multiply horses for himself, nor shall he cause the people to return to Egypt to multiply horses, since the LORD has said to you, 'You shall never again return that way.'"

Horses are a prominent motif on this gold pectoral from a royal kurgan in Tolstaya Mogila, Ordzhonikidze, Ukraine. This Scythian artifact dates to the second half of the 4th century BC.

The Trundholm sun chariot (shown above) was discovered in Denmark. It is a representation of the sun chariot, a bronze statue of a horse and a large bronze disk, which are placed on a device with spoked wheels. It dates to between 1800 to 1600 BC.

In Modhera, India there is a temple with the images of the Sun deity and seven horses. Among the Vedic rulers the horse became a symbol of fertility and the ruler's principal wife was to copulate with the selected horse. The Ashvamedha yajna was a year-long process offered by kings seeking to gain strength,male heirs, or to expand their territories. The horse chosen for the sacrifice was to have the Krittika (the Pleiades) on his forehead. The horse was selected at the beginning of the year and allowed to wander freely while guarded by royal soldiers. Everywhere the horse wandered was claimed to be under the king’s jurisdiction. If the horse entered the territory of another ruler, that ruler had to submit or engage in combat. During the year the horse was not allowed to mate and at the end of the year it was returned to the city where it was sacrificed. After the horse was sacrificed, the carcass was cut into sections and the priests burned the sections on outdoor altars. The entire ceremony lasted three days.

Reaction to horse idolatry

The Ashvamedha yajna was contrary to the Biblical injunction against bestiality and idolatry. This may explain why Josiah removed the horses dedicated to the Sun.

"And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun, at the entering in of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, and burned the chariots of the sun with fire." (II Kings 23:11)
Related reading: The Sun and the Sacred; 7000 BC Horse Burial Linked to Sheba; 700,000-Year-Old Horse Found in Yukon; Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel; The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y

Friday, May 6, 2016

A Bridegroom of Blood

Badarian (3200 BC) flint knife with ivory handle

Now it came about at the lodging place on the way that the LORD met him and sought to put him to death. Then Zipporah took a flint and cut off her son's foreskin and threw it at Moses' feet, and she said, "You are indeed a bridegroom of blood to me." So He let him alone. At that time she said, "You are a bridegroom of blood" [hatam damim]-- because of the circumcision... Exodus 4:24-26

Alice C. Linsley

Exodus 4:24-26 is a puzzling passage and one that shows evidence of emendation. It is not clear who the Lord sought to put to death. Was it Moses [hatan - "groom" in Hebrew] or the uncircumcized child [hatan - "child" in Arabic]? Is the key word hatan or hatam?

At first glance this story seems to be about Moses and Zipporah, but apparently a later source - probably the Deuteronomist - attempted to shift the focus to the firstborn son and draw a parallel with God's wrath shown to the firstborn of Egypt when the angel of death passed over.

Exodus 4: 2-23 suggests a reason for the intrusion of this idea.
The Lord said to Moses, "When you go back to Egypt see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your power; but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go. "Then you shall say to Pharaoh, 'Thus says the Lord, "Israel is My son, My firstborn. "So I said to you, 'Let My son go that he may serve Me'; but you have refused to let him go. Behold, I will kill your son, your firstborn.'"
Israel is said to God's "firstborn" and circumcision was to be the sign of the covenant with Israel. God's wrath would be expected to fall on Moses if he neglected to circumcise his own son. That said, this theological allusion is vague and does not fit the Exodus narrative well.

In classical Arabic hatana means to circumcise. One might think that hatana, hatan and hatam are related, given the context. However, since circumcision originated among the ancient Nilotes we do well to look at the ancient Egyptian verb TM to determine the meaning of ha-tam damim.

In his book The Ancient Egyptian Language: An Historical Study, James P. Allen explains: "The verb tm forms a negative counterpart of all verb forms that can be negated except the imperative. It is a verb in its own right, meaning something like “stop doing, fail to do, not do,” and as such can be negated itself..." (p. 129). The examples he gives include: "He will not fail to do good." and "He does not fail to return." Zipporah's complaint appears to be related to something Moses failed to do.

To prevent her husband's death, she performed the circumcision herself, and in an act intended to cover him by the blood [dam], she touched him with the circumcised foreskin.

The root dmm appears in over 62 places in the Bible and 4 times in the book of Job, the Horite of Uz. It refers to guilt or responsibility. With this in mind, ha-tm damm appears to mean simply that Moses failed to do his duty.

Whatever the writer's purpose for including this account in the narrative, it is clear that Zipporah was not happy with Moses for putting her in a situation that forced her to take the role of a man, something that would have been extremely distasteful to her. Even today many women dislike having to perform a male role because it feels like it diminishes their femininity.

Circumcision Among Abraham's People

Badarian flint 4000 BC
Ritual circumcision was done with flint knives long after metal knives were already in use. These archaic obsidian flints had edges sharper than modern surgical steel knifes. They were high in sodium chloride which acted to prevent infection. Flint workshops have been found throughout the Negev, suggesting that even after the production of iron tools, the flint knife was preferred for circumcision in honor of an ancient tradition among Abraham's Horite Habiru people, his Horim.

Using a ritual flint knife like the high saline flint knives found at al-Badar, Zipporah cut off her son's foreskin and touched Moses's "legs" (genitals?) with it, saying "You are truly a bridegroom of blood [hatam damim] to me!"-- because of the circumcision."

Among Abraham's Nilo-Saharan aancestors, the circumcised penis was a fertility symbol. According to Egyptologist, E. A. Budge (The Gods of the Egyptians, Dover Publications) early Egyptian mythology includes the belief that the universe was created by the blood that was shed when God circumcised himself. Here we find a recurring Biblical theme: "Life is in the blood." There is a sense of protection by the blood which connects hatan (groom) to the older word hatan which means "protect" in Akkadian.

Two ideas emerge from this mysterious account. First, the blood rite of circumcision was regarded as a mark of protection similar to how the divine mark on Cain protected him (Genesis 4:15). Second, the failure to circumcise sons exposed the father to divine judgment.

Anthropolgical background

Moses had two wives, following the pattern of his Horite Hebrew forefathers. One wife was Kushite (Numbers 12). This wife would have been his half-sister. Her designation as "Kushite" means that Moses's father married a Kushite, since ethnicity was traced through the mother, not the father. The mother of Korah and Moses' half-sister wife was Ishar, a descendant of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36).

Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro (Yetro), was Moses's second wife. Jethro was a Horite Habiru (Hebrew) priest living in Midian. Long before the time of Jethro the Habiru were widely dispersed in the ancient world.

Moses met Zipporah at a well where she was drawing water for her father’s livestock. For obvious reasons, priests maintained shrines near wells, natural springs or along the banks of rivers. As a priest's daughter, Zipporah would have been familiar with animal sacrifice and circumcision, but these were performed by the priests, not by the daughters of priests. This is why her circumcision of her first born son is remarkable.

It is important to see the connection between the ruler-priest as one who circumcises and how God in Christ circumcises the human heart. This is exactly the message Rabbi Paul wanted the Christ followers in Rome to understand when he wrote:
The one who is physically uncircumcised yet keeps the Law will condemn you who, even though you have the written code and circumcision, are a lawbreaker. A man is not is a Jew because he is one outwardly, nor is circumcision only outward and physical. No, a man is a Jew because he is one inwardly, and circumcision is a matter of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a man’s praise does not come from men, but from God. (Romans 2:27-29)
The Apostle Paul also wrote about how the sinner is covered or protected, not through a rite or ceremony, but through the Blood of the Cross and the empty Tomb. Because of Christ's victory over death we are seated with Him in the heavenly realms. "For God was pleased to have all His fullness dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile to Himself all things,whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through the blood of His cross." (Colossians 1:19,20)

Related reading: Why Zipporah Used a Flint Knife; Hatam Damim: The Bridegroom of Blood; Circumcision Among Abraham's People; The Origin of Circumcision; Moses's Wives and Brothers; Seated With Christ; The Pattern of Two Wives

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Seated with Christ

The LORD sits enthroned over the flood; the LORD is enthroned as King forever.
Psalm 29:10

Alice C. Linsley

Many years of anthropological investigation using Biblical data has convinced me that Messianic expectation is one of the earliest religious beliefs. It is expressed in the burial practices of Abraham's archaic ancestors who believed in bodily resurrection and anticipated the coming of a Righteous Ruler who would overcome death and lead His people to immortality.

Through Biblical Anthropology some principles have been established to identify and authenticate material of great antiquity. On such principle states: "The more broadly dispersed throughout the canonical books a verse, quotation, or allusion is, the older it is." That means that Psalm 110:1 is one of the oldest Messianic references in the Bible. It appears in various forms in the Old Testament [Ps. 145:13; Isaiah 9; Daniel 4:34 and 7:27]  and at least 20 references are made to this in the New Testament.

Psalm 110: 1 reads, The Lord says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."

It is generally assumed that David wrote these words under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. However, that is not the case.  David received these words from his Horite Hebrew/Habiru ancestors. This belief was stated in these exact words at least 1000 years before David in the Coffin Texts. Consider how Horus, the archetype of Christ, describes himself in the Coffin texts (Passage 148):

"I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of 'Red Cloak'."

Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a Messianic reference, and the context for Paul's words: "And God raised us up with Christ and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus." (Ephesians 2:6)

Therefore, let us live and pray as ones seated with Christ! Let us take hold of the promise of Christ: "To the one who is victorious, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I was victorious and sat down with my Father on his throne." (Revelation 3:21)

Horus and the Proto-Gospel

Horus, the Seed or "Son" of the Creator, was the embodiment of divine kingship and the protector of the reigning pharaoh. Ra and Horus shared the same emblem, the Sun, and were regarded as one, as Jesus confirmed when he said, "I and my Father are one." (John 10:30; John 17)

In Utterance 699 of the Pyramid Texts, Horus ascends aloft like a heron and is exalted at his Father's side. The prayer reads: "Be young, be young beside your Father."

Horus was conceived when Hathor was overshadowed by the Sun. Likewise, the angel told the Virgin Mary, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God." (Luke 1:35)

Hathor is shown wearing the sun within the horns of the cow. The Y image came to designate divinely appointed rulers among Abraham's people: Yitzak, Yacob, Yaqtan, Yishmael, Yeshua, Yishbak, etc. One of the signs of divine kingship was that the new born child was swaddled in a red cloak.

The Nilotic Rulers and Messianic Expectation

Saint Augustine wrote, "that the Egyptians alone believe in the resurrection, as they carefully preserved their dead bodies." (Jon Davies, "Death, burial, and rebirth in the religions of antiquity", Routledge, 1999, p. 27) However, the peoples of the Upper and Lower Nile shared this belief which they received from their Proto-Saharan ancestors. Royal tombs were built at the Horite Hebrew/Habiru shrine city of Nekhen before the first Egyptian Dynasty. The oldest section of Nekhen dates to 3800 BC. At Nekhen, Proto-Saharan nobles were buried with red ocher as early as 3500 BC.

One intriguing discovery at Nekhen was the recovery of an almost complete beard in association with the redheaded man in Burial 79. Consider how the descendants of these ruler-priests are often described in Genesis as red an hairy. Esau and David are examples, and the people who live in Abraham's territory of Edom was known to have a distinctive red tone. Edom or "Idumea" means land of red people.

Embalming of royal mummies was already a science by 2800 BC. Reference to a Righteous Ruler-Priest who would overcome death and lead his people to immortality is found in the Pyramid Texts (2400 BC) and in the Coffin Texts (2100 BC). These texts express the desire of the Kushites and Egyptians for immortality. The offices of ruler and priest were connected. They believed they would receive eternal life through the agency of their ruler-priest and they yearned for his appearing.

They ancient Kushites and Egyptians made a great ceremony of the burial of their dead kings. The construction of the royal tomb took many years. Upon completion of the tomb, there was as consecration ceremony. When the ruler died, the embalmer priests carefully prepared the body. There was a procession to the tomb, lead by the priests and royal family, the people in their train.  After prayers and animal sacrifice, the tomb was sealed. The grieving people returned to their homes. It was believed that the Righteous Ruler would rise on the third day just as the sun broke on the eastern horizon. At his rising the Righteous Ruler would gather his people to himself and lead them to immortality.

This is pictured in Psalm 68:18:  "You ascended on high, leading a host of captives in your train and receiving gifts among men, even among the rebellious, that the Lord God may dwell there."

This is what the Apostle Paul refers to when he wrote, "This is why it says: 'When he ascended on high, he took many captives and gave gifts to his people.'" (Ephesians 4:8)

Related reading: Who Were the Horites?; Who Were the Kushites?; The Christ in Nilotic Mythology; Mining Blood; The Edomites and the Color Red; The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y; The Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel

Friday, April 29, 2016

Biblical Patterns Among the Dogon

Alice C. Linsley

Many of the peoples who live in central and west Africa migrated there from the Benue Trough, or Lake Chad, or the Nile Valley. This is true of the Dogon, whose origin appears to be the Nile. Biblical practices are observed among the Dogon because the point of origin of their ancestors is the same point of origin of Abraham's ancestors.

PBS filmed a special in which Michael Palin visited the Dogon of Tirelli on the Bandiagara Escarpment. The Dogon have kept themselves isolated, marrying endogamously, and keeping their religious practices secret. They acknowledge lineage by ba debu n, that is, the “father’s house” or the native village of ancestors. The ancestry of the mother is also important.

The Dogon now live in a dry land, but at one time their habitat was the lush elevated forests above the Nile. There the hunter found abundant prey. To this day the hunter is revered as a sacred caste. While with the Dogon, a hunter blew gunpowder in Palin's face from the hunter's old blunderbuss.

Bravery is acclaimed among the Dogon. The victorious warrior or hunter is said to have anankaji, bravery or heroism.

Found at Tel Gezer (dated 12th to mid-11th century BC)
The Egyptian word for phallus was khenen (hnn) related to khenty, meaning before or in front of

Another sacred caste within Dogon society is the village blacksmith. He fabricates the swords that are used in ceremonies and the ritual knives used to circumcise both males and females. The circumcision of females is called "Pharaonic circumcision" and it originated among the Dogon's Nilotic ancestors.

Anthropologist Janice Boddy has studied Pharaonic circummcision among people of Sudan. In an essay that appeared in American Ethnologist titled "Womb as Oasis: The symbolic context of Pharaonic circumcision in rural Northern Sudan" (Vol.9, pgs. 682-698), Boddy explains:
In this society women do not achieve social recognition by becoming like men, but by becoming less like men physically, sexually, and socially. Male as well as female circumcision rites stress this complementarity. Through their own operation, performed at roughly the same age as when girls are circumcised (between five and ten years), boys become less like women: while the female reproductive organs are covered, that of the male is uncovered. Circumcision, then, accomplishes the social definition of a child's sex by removing physical characteristics deemed appropriate to his or her opposite: the clitoris and other external genitalia, in the case of females, the prepuce of the penis, in the case of males. (Boddy, p. 688)

Female and male circumcision is regarded as necessary to achieve the proper role of wife/mother or husband/father.

Herodotus (BC 485-425) wrote concerning the origins of circumcision:
Egyptians and the Ethiopians have practiced circumcision since time immemorial. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves admit that they learnt the practice from the Egyptians, while the Syrians in the river Thermodon and the Pathenoise region and their neighbours the Macrons say they learnt it recently from the Colchidians. These are the only races which practice circumcision, and it is observable that they do it in the same way with the Egyptians.

The Dogon chief has two wives who maintain separate households. Two wives is the rule rather than the exception among Nilotic rulers and the rulers named in the Genesis King Lists.

The Dogon recognized the binary star system of Sirius before it was known through modern astronomy. By 4245 BC, the priests of the Upper Nile had already established a calendar based on the appearance of the star Sirius that becomes visible to the naked eye once every 1,461 years.

Apparently, Nilotes had been tracking this star and connecting it to seasonal changes and agriculture for thousands of years. This is verified by the Priest Manetho who reported in his history (241 BC) that Nilotes had been “star-gazing” as early as 40,000 years ago. Plato, who studied in Egypt, claimed that the Africans had been tracking the heavens for 10,000 years.

Related reading:  The Origin of Circumcision; Circumcision and Binary Distinctions; No! You Can't Take another Wife; The Pattern of Two Wives; Mother's House and Father's House; Dogon Vocabulary

Friday, April 15, 2016

The Trapezoid in Ancient Architecture and Technology

Alice C. Linsley

Lepenski Vir is an important Mesolithic archaeological site including a series of Mesolithic villages on a high terrace on the Serbian bank of the Iron Gates Gorge of the Danube river, near Donji Milanovac. In this region there were at least six village occupations between 6400 and 4900 BC.

The trapezoid was an important architectural feature among the peoples living in Lepenski Vir. Their trapezoid houses were wooden with sandstone floors. Some of the floors were covered with limestone plaster and burnished with red and white pigments. The homes had a central hearth with a fish-roasting spit in each structure. Several of the houses held altars and sculptures formed of the sandstone rock. Many of the large sculptures combine human and fish features, similar to statues found at ancient Tyre and Sidon in modern Lebanon. Sidon, called Saida today, means "fishing" in Arabic. Fish images were common among river populations that depended on fishing.

Lepenski Vir dates to the same period as Catal Hoyuk. These sites provide a glimpse into Mesolithic daily life and rituals. Lepenski Vir is famous for its stone idols, some of which have a trapezoid shape like the one shown below.

In many houses at Catal Hoyuk the main room was decorated with plastered bull skulls (bucrania) set into the east or west walls. These reflect the religious sun symbolism of these archaic peoples. The bull with the sun resting on its horns represented the overshadowing or presence of the Creator. This image also represented the divine appointment of rulers, as in this image of a ruler found at Mohenjo-daro.

The same solar symbolism is found in Hittite religion. The architecture of the Hittites included trapezoidal doors such as the entrance to the chamber of Suppiluliuma II in Hattusa, modern Turkey (shown below).

The Mesolithic settlements at Lepenski Vir and Catal Hoyuk appear to be related to populations in Y-DNA Haplogroup I2, the most common paternal lineage in Macedonia, Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Albania, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria and Sardinia, and a major lineage in most Slavic countries. It is found at a frequency of 5 to 10% in Germanic countries.

There is a close correspondence between the populations in Haplogroups 12 and R1b. These haplogroups are of special interest to Biblical Anthropologists.

The trapezoid shape appears to have been an important symbol among the peoples of this region. The pillars at Göbekli Tepe have a trapezoidal shape. Many of the pits at Blagotin (Serbia) have a trapezoid shape. Many ancient barrows and tombs in Gloucestershire and Scotland have a trapezoidal shape. About 330 royal cairns in central Ireland have trapezoidal features.

Throughout ancient Sardinia the doors of fortifications have a trapezoid shape as shown below.

The Nuraghe or "Su Nuraxi" of Barumini

The ancient nyraghe of Sardinia resemble the beehive sheep cotes found throughout the region populated by peoples of the haplogroups mentioned above. These sheep cotes were sacred places.

The shape of these doors resembles the trapezoidal doors of tombs and temples of ancient Egypt and the structures built aboriginal peoples (3500 BC) of the Andes.

The ancient Babylonians tracked the apparent decreasing velocity of Jupiter from the planet's first appearance along the horizon, to 60 days later, and then 120 days later. If drawn on a graph, this relationship is represented in the shape of two conjoined trapezoids. According to science historian Mathieu Ossendrijver, the area of each trapezoid describes Jupiter's total displacement (measured in degrees) along the ecliptic, or the path of the sun. Jupiter was regarded as the king planet and represented the Creator God. The sun was the emblem of the Creator. So the alignment of Jupiter and the Sun was of special interest to the ancient priest-astronomers.

Trapezoidal stone tools were found in Japan on Mount Takaharayama. The tools date to roughly 35,000 years ago and were used to mine raw stones from the mountain. Akira Ono, a professor of archaeology at Tokyo Metropolitan University, reports that these trapezoid tools are like those found in loam layers in the Kanto region that date back 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.

The oldest stone tools with a trapezoid shape have four sides, two of which are parallel. These were found in Southern Africa and date to 280,000 to 40,000 years ago.

Related reading: The Religion of Archaic Rulers; Haplogroup 12 Y-DNA; The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection; The Kushite-Kushan Connection; Some Marks of Prehistoric Religion