Friday, January 8, 2016

Intermarriage between the Dedanites and the Edomites

Alice C. Linsley

The oldest known name for the Creator in the Bible is El (ʾēl) which corresponds to the Proto-Semitic ʔ-L. The L likely was a symbol of a throne or chief’s seat and indicated power and authority. The Northwest Semitic ʾēl is cognate to the Proto-Arabic ʾIlāh and the Akkadian ilum. Akkadian was the language of Nimrod’s kingdom in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Nimrod was a Kushite kingdom builder according to Genesis 10:8: “Kush became the father of Nimrod; he became a mighty one on the earth.”

In Nigeria, the Hausa translation of the Bible uses Allah (Arabic: الله) to designate the Creator and the God and Father of Jesus Christ. Allah is also used in Syrian Bibles. As a designation for God, Allah corresponds to the archaic El in the Hebrew Bible, as Dios in Spanish corresponds to Dieu in French. The name was used among Arabian and Syrian peoples long before the time of Mohammad. Allah is the compressed expression of al-ilah, meaning THE God.

Among Abraham’s ancestors there were many names for the Creator. These included YHWH, Yah, El, and Ilum. Another ancient name for God is Ausa, sometimes spelled Asa.The Egyptian word Asa refers to God as father.  The Asante tribe bears this name. Asa-nte means "people of Asa." The word "Hausa" probably has a similar meaning: ha-Ausa, meaning "the people of Ausa."

The older names for God can be identified by their simple roots, such as L, or by their bi-consonantal forms, such as YH or LM. The more recent Arabic and Hebrew words can be identified by a shift to bi-consonantal forms (called bilaterals) and triliterals. There are also a small number of quadriliterals in Hebrew and Arabic.

Old Arabic, also known as Dedanite, is closer to the archaic stratum of the Semitic roots due to its relative isolation in the Arabian Peninsula. Most Bible commentaries explain that the terms Dedan and Dedanite are from ded'-a-nim/dedhan/dedhanim, meaning "low." This is an odd interpretation since the Dedanites were known to dwell in elevated rock shelters. Genesis 10:7 provides the more accurate explanation that the Afro-Arabian Dedanites are related to the Kushite ruler Dedan. The original context is Kushite. In this context the word Dedan refers to the color red and is cognate to the Egyptian didi (red fruit) and the Yoruba diden (red). The Dedanites, along with the ancient Edomites, were known to have a distinctive red skin tone, like Esau and David.

It has been noted that the prayer alignments of the oldest mosques in Iraq and Cairo originally pointed to the region of Dedan, not to Mecca. The prayer orientation of Mohammad’s original mosque in Medina was said to be toward Jerusalem, but could easily have been pointing to this same region in Dedan. Imagine another blue line extending from Medina to Jerusalem.

The blue lines intersect in the region of ancient Dedan.

Dedan is where the largest collection of the oldest Arabic texts have been found at the oases of Teman and Dedan, present day Al-`Ula in Saudi Arabia. Jeremiah 49 links the Dedanites with the people of Teman (TMN). Eliphaz, the son of Esau and Adah (Genesis 36), is called a "Temanite" in Job 4:1. Eliphaz married a daughter of Seir, the Horite ruler of Edom. Her name was Timna (TMN) according to Genesis 36.

The Dedanite alphabet consisted of 28 letters and resembled other scripts used in the Arabian Peninsula and in Syria, though Dedanite was distinctive in its use of the definite article h- or O (a sun symbol) whereas Southern Arabic and the Arabic spoken today uses the definite article al-. Not surprisingly, Dedanite and Hebrew have many common features, including the use of h- as the definite article “the” and the use of matres lectionis to mark long vowels.

Related reading: Edo, Edom, Idumea; Two Named Esau; The Edomites and the Color Red; The Nubian Context of YHWH

Thursday, December 17, 2015

Karampetsos, Karambet, Karoutes

The following is an email communication. The background information is available to read under "related reading"at the end.

Mt. Giona is the fifth highest mountain in Greece.


I read The High Places (the kar) on Academia, and I really learned a lot from it. Thank you.

My Greek grandfather's name was "Karampetsos" which I was told means "black skin"or "blackamoor" a common surname in Alexandria, Egypt. They were Orthodox priests at a village on Mount Gournia in Lidoriki, Greece from 1750 to 1948.

Now I know where the "kara" part of the name came from.


Dear Margaret,

How interesting! Thank you for that information.

The family name Karampetsos may be related to the word Karambet which refers to a black knife introduced into Asia and the Philippines by the Kushites.

These would have been carried by warriors in service of the chief or king and by warrior-priests, suggesting that your family on the Greek side is of an ancient ruler-priest caste. 

Lidoriki is built on the side of Mount Giona near the Mornos River. What is there today is likely built over much older ruins. The high elevation near a major water source fits the description of an ancient "high place" and it appears that some archaeological work is going to take place there. 

Let me know what else you discover.

Best wishes,

Alice C. Linsley

Karoutes after the Nazis


Thank you for the archaeology link.

My grandparents' village was called Karoutes which means "The Bluffs", and it was burned to the ground on Christmas (1944?) by the Nazis.  The villagers, about 800, had guns and fought, and it was the only battle Greeks won on the mainland (Crete drove them out) during WWII.  My grandfather's father Efthimious was the village priest, and he was tortured in the Church before it was set on fire, as were my grandmother's brother Nick, and the village school teacher.  The Nazi carried out atrocities in a number of villages through out Greece that night.  It was long rumored that the Nazis were looking for two downed English flyers that the village was hiding.  I can confirm that, since Nick's brother George Katsimbas was leading the Resistance, and he personally told me that was the reason in 1988.

My Great-Aunt Vasiliki's olive groves are the olive groves that visitors to the Oracle would walk through to get to the ruins.

Karoutes has new construction in the last ten years.

Wednesday, December 16, 2015

Reading the Magdala Stone

Alice C. Linsley

A carved stone found in 2009 in Magdala, in northern Israel may explain why Jesus was accused of blasphemy by the High Priest. The stone was unearthed at what was subsequently identified as a first-century synagogue.

The stone depicts the oldest image of the Second Temple’s menorah found to date.

According to the Gospel of Mark, Jesus was sentences to die for blasphemy. He said that people would one day see him "seated at the right hand of power and coming with clouds of glory." This is an allusion to Daniel 7, and the High Priest Caiaphas understood perfectly what what Jesus was claiming. Psalm 104 describes God as a chariot driver who rides the clouds. Daniel 7 speaks of the Ancient of Days. The name in Aramaic, as it appears in Daniel, is Atik Yomin.
I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. (Daniel 7:9)

Solar images depicting the Creator surrounded by the constellations appear in several early synagogues. When I asked Jodi Magness, who has been studying the iconography of early synagogues, about the solar imagery on the Magdala Stone, she responded that "at least 1-2 archaeologists have suggested that the imagery on it should be understood in connection with the idea of the divine chariot."

Aspects of the ancient solar symbolism are found in the Bible and in historical texts. Psalm 92:2 describes the Lord as “a sun and a shield.” Psalm 104 describes YHWH as a chariot driver who rides the clouds. The Victory Tablet of Amenhotep III describes Horus as “The Good God, Golden [Horus], Shining in the chariot, like the rising of the sun; great in strength, strong in might…” (Tablet of Victory of Amenhotep III, J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Two, p. 854).

On the top of the Magdala Stone there is a 6-prong star inside a circle, a solar image like that which appears on ancient Jewish ossuaries. This is the merkaba, a solar chariot of the Creator, the vehicle of Light that would carry the dead to the place of rest. They hoped to rise on the Last Day. In the Iron Age this merkaba was shown as a chariot. The spokes within a circle are both the rays of the sun and the spokes of the chariot wheel. This symbol likely appeared on the Ark of the Covenant. In the Ethiopian Church a replica of the Ark, called ta-bot, is displayed in the churches. It is decorated with the 6-pointed star inside a circle at the center of the ark.

The same image appears on tomb stones, at threshing floors, and on bread, suggesting a connection between the idea of sowing seed in the ground (burial) and new life.

Tomb at Banais, Israel

Ossuary of Miriam, daughter of the priest Yeshua

Threshing floors were sacred places at high level elevations where the wind could carry away the chaff. Araunah, a Jebusite ruler, sold David a threshing floor upon which David constructed an altar. These were places of worship in the ancient world.

Threshing floor 
Among the Habiru Horite priests there was a commemoration of the death of Horus, the "son" of God. On the third day the priests led processions to the fields where grain was sowed. St. Augustine noted that the Egyptians took great care in the burial of their dead and never practiced cremation, as in the religions that seek to escape physical existence. Abraham's ancestors believed in the resurrection of the body and their ceremonies and solar symbolism express their yearning for a deified king who would rise from the grave and deliver his people from death.

The 6-prong rosette is found on Irish Maslin bread (shown above). Maslin bread is the oldest known bread eaten by the Celts. It was the bread of common folks, containing a blend of wheat and rye flours. The rosette is a solar symbol. 

Caiaphas understood what Jesus was saying about himself. Jesus was claiming to be the fulfillment of Messianic expectation, the divine Seed of Genesis 3:15 who tramples the serpent and overcomes death. Jesus referred to Himself as the promised "Seed" when He foretold his death in Jerusalem. He said, "Unless a seed fall into the ground and die, it cannot give life." (John 12:24)

Saturday, December 12, 2015

The Gourd in Biblical Symbolism

A despondent Jonah facing east under a gourd plant

Alice C. Linsley

Gourds were a sacred symbol among Abraham's Habiru (Hebrew) people. They represented fertility, new life, the arousal of God (whose emblem was the sun), and the rising of the sun in the east. Gourds carved into cedar decorated the inner sanctuary of the temple.
The house, that is, the nave in front of the inner sanctuary, was forty cubits long. There was cedar on the house within, carved in the shape of gourds and open flowers; all was cedar, there was no stone seen. 1 Kings 6:18
Gourds also decorated the bronze sea, a circular basin which held a supply of water for ritual use.
Now he made the sea of cast metal ten cubits from brim to brim, circular in form, and its height was five cubits, and thirty cubits in circumference. Under its brim gourds went around encircling it ten to a cubit, completely surrounding the sea; the gourds were in two rows, cast with the rest. It stood on twelve oxen, three facing north, three facing west, three facing south, and three facing east; and the sea was set on top of them... 1 Kings 7:24

In the story of Jonah, the LORD prepares a gourd plant to shelter Jonah. This pleases Jonah, but a worm destroys the plant. The gourd represents the new life to be enjoyed by the people of Ninevah after repentance and deliverance from destruction. The worm is Jonah's bitterness that his enemies should be saved, just as he feared, knowing that the LORD is gracious and merciful.
The LORD said, "Do you have good reason to be angry?" Then Jonah went out from the city and sat east of it. There he made a shelter for himself and sat under it in the shade until he could see what would happen in the city. So the LORD God appointed a plant and it grew up over Jonah to be a shade over his head to deliver him from his discomfort. And Jonah was extremely happy about the plant.… Jonah 4:4-6

The gourd is a solar symbol. As it matures, the gourd swells. It is a reference to the Creator God whose emblem, the sun, swells as it rises in the morning. There is a connection to the ancient Egyptian root bn, meaning to swell, and to the the Proto-Dravidian root brih, which means to swell or enlarge. The Egyptian word for the rising sun is wbn, and that which is enlarged or swollen to its limits is designated by the reduplication bnbn.

The Old Arabic word for the swelling of the sun is yakburu, meaning “he is getting big” and with the intensive active prefix: yukabbiru, it means "he is enlarging." This it is related to the Proto-Dravidian word for an east-facing Sun temple, which is O-piru. The caste of priests who served in thes sun temples were called Hapiru or Habiru (Hebrew). The priests' morning ritual involved greeting or blessing the rising sun and offering prayers as it swelled on the horizon. 

This practice of venerating the sun is very ancient. It continues today in the morning ritual of devout Hindus (Agnihotra) and in the Jewish Sun Blessing ritual (Birkat Hachama) that is performed every 28 years. It was performed by the Horite priests of Nekhen, the oldest known temple (c. 5000 BC) to have association with Abraham's ancestors. Artifacts of great importance have been found at the predynastic temple at Nekhen on the Nile. These include funeral masks, statues, jewelry, beer vats, large flint knives, and the pillared halls characteristic of later Egyptian monuments and temples. Nekhen is where the oldest life-sized human statue was found: a priest from the temple of Horus, c.3000 BC. Votive offerings at the Nekhen temple were ten times larger than the normal mace heads and bowls found elsewhere, suggesting that this was a very prestigious shrine.

Horite priests placed invocations to Horus at the summit of the fortress as the sun rose. In the morning the priests faced the eastern horizon to greet the rising sun, the emblem of Ra and his son Horus. Prayers were offered at dawn and dusk. The Chief Inspector of the Horite priests of Nekhen was Horemkhawef. His tomb has been identified.

Tuesday, December 1, 2015

The Bible and Imagined Morality

Alice C. Linsley

The writer of this article, J. Parnell, writes, "The current debate is plagued by a binary lens." That statement needs to be unpacked before the reader can see the flaw in Parnell's thinking. He seems to mean that the discussion of homosex has polarized into two groups. Polarization and a binary worldview are NOT the same thing. 

The biblical stand against homosex, onanism and bestiality is entirely on the basis of a binary worldview. The difference between the binary view and polarization is significant. Contemporary morality would have us believe that both positions - pro and con - are equally valid (though one is more politically correct). This is dualism. In dualism the entities in a binary set are regarded as equal. Think Ying-Yang. On the other hand, the biblical writers understood that one entity in the fixed binary set is objectively observed to be superior to the other. Males are larger and stronger than females. The Sun's light is greater than the refulgent light of the Moon. 

In Genesis we read that God created two great lights in the heavens: the greater (Sun) to rule the day and the lesser (moon) to rule the night. The superiority of the male and the Sun are not value judgments. These represent empirical observation of a universal pattern. The binary worldview is found throughout the Bible and is especially evident in Genesis. Sometimes the binary distinction is rather subtle and easy to miss. Consider, for example, the binary set of hot and cool encounters with God. Abraham was visited “in the heat of the day” by God in three Persons (Gen. 18:1). The binary opposite is “in the cool of the day”, the time of God’s visitation to Adam and Eve in Paradise (Gen. 3:8). We have encounters with God described as hot and cool. We must always pay attention to such distinctions. In the first God has come to punish Sodom and Gomorrah, and in the second God has come to enjoy fellowship with the Man and the Woman. 

Truth in the Bible is told from the perspective of both the male and the female. There are both male and female prophets in the Bible. Deborah judged Israel while sitting under her tamar tree. A tamar is a date nut palm and was associated with the female principle. Many Old Testament women were named Tamar. The prophet or "moreh" consulted by Abraham sat under an oak. This tree was associated with the male principle. There is no murky middle ground. No androgenous authority figure sitting under some fanciful tree.

There are two "passovers" in the Old Testament. The passover associated with Moses involving the lamb's blood streaked on the lintel and door posts. Because of this blood, death passed over these houses. Likewise the scarlet cord hanging from the window of Rahab's house preserved those within the house when death came to Jericho. There is no denying the blood symbolism and no imaginary substitute for it.

The Bible asserts as the foremost distinction the relationship of the Creator to the creation. The Creator transcends the creation. Likewise, the Creator is greater than the creature. Were this not so, there would be no Gospel of Jesus Christ. For He who was uncreated, emptied Himself of his elevated estate to become flesh. This is the meaning of the Greek word kenosis (κένωσις)- to empty oneself. This divine action is embodied in Jesus Christ, "who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But emptied himself, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross." (Philippians 2:6-8) The strong Overcomer stoops to save the weak.

Anthropologists observe a distinction also between the blood work of men in killing and the blood work of women in birthing. The two bloods represent the binary opposites of life and death. The blood shed in war, hunting and animal sacrifice fell to warriors, hunters and priests. The blood shed in first intercourse, the monthly cycle and in childbirth fell to wives and midwives. The two bloods were never to mix or even to be present in the same space. Women didn’t participate in war, the hunt, and in animal sacrifices, and they were isolated during menses. Likewise, men were not present at the circumcision of females or in the birthing hut.

The male principle involves insemination, protection of the weaker, expansion and uprightness. It is symbolized in the ancient world by meteorite showers and iron "seeds" covering the surface of the earth, by the Sun's rays shining down, the lengthening of shadows, and the high places (kar, tamana) and the standing stones and sacred pillars. The female principle involves receptivity, birthing, nurturing, fluidity and softness. It is symbolized by water, date nut palms, the swelling of gourds, being overshadowed by the Sun, and milk.

The blurring of the distinction between male and female, between humans and other creatures, and between life and death is forbidden in the Bible. This is why homosex and bestiality were punished by death, and the Israelites were commanded never to boil a young goat it its mother’s milk.

Sex between humans and animals blurs the distinction of human superiority (being made in the image of the Creator). The spilling of semen (onanism) is regarded as an unrighteous deed because this too violates the fixed order in Creation. The seed that should fall to the earth is the seed of plants, which spring forth from the earth. The seed of man should fall on his own type (the womb), from which man comes forth. This is the ancient wisdom which observed immutable patterns in nature. It is based on reality, not imagined entities or moral relativism. Such wisdom paved the way for technological advances in the ancient world and empirical science in the modern world.

Related reading: The Importance of Binary Distinctions; Binary Distinctions and Kenosis, Ancient Seats of Wisdom; Stone Work of the Ancient World; Who Laid the Foundations of Science?; The Murky Waters of Insanity

Thursday, November 19, 2015

Circumcision and Standing Stones in the Judean Hills

Found at Tel Gezer (12th to mid-11th century BC)
The Egyptian word for phallus was khenen related to khenty, meaning "before" or "in front of "

Tel Gezer is an old high place (kar, ophel, tamana) in the western Shephelah in Israel. It was comprised of two hills with a narrow valley between them. This represents typical typography of ancient shrine settlements with a bamah or high altar. It was a place of ritual. Likely circumcision was one of the rituals. Flint or obsidian knives were used to perform circumcisions. These often had edges sharper than modern surgical steel. Flint workshops have been found throughout the Judean hills and in Galilee. It appears that these knives were used even after the production of iron tools. Infection was less of a risk given the high saline composition of the flint.

The Egyptians had a settlement at Gezer in the 11th century BC.  In the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2200–1500 BC) the city was fortified. There was a gate, a tower, and a protected water system. These would have been built under the direction of the ruler of the area, probably a vassal of the Pharaoh. The Judean high places were under the control of Egypt from about 2000 to 1178 BC. The tenth century BC Gezer Calendar appears to reflect Nilotic farming practices.

The Gezer water system was first excavated from 1902–1905 and 1907–1909 by Irish archaeologist R.A.S. Macalister. According to Dan Warner, Co-director of the Tel Gezer Water System Project, “The system fits well with other features in close proximity: to the south the massive gate and stone tower and to the northeast the large standing stones.”

The keyhole-shaped entrance of the water system. Photo: Dan Warner

The water system provided a means of getting water to inhabitants within the city walls. It had a “keyhole-shaped entrance,” measuring 12 feet across and 24 feet high, a sloping shaft running 138 feet downward at a 38° angle to the collection basin, and a collection basin, which extended on to a nearby cavern. Usually the excavators of water shafts and tunnels of this type took advantage of natural karstic fissures in the rock when cutting passages.

Archaic high places were on hills near water systems. They were often marked by standing stones (menhirs) such as these found at Tel Gezer. These date to the period of the standing stones erected on Salisbury Plain in England around 2500 BC.

Standing stones at the Gezer “high place” Photo: Dennis Cole.

Circles of standing stones are an artifact of the archaic world and probably the work of stone workers in the R1b haplogroup.

Some of the stone circles and megaliths found in Senegal and Gambia date to the 3rd century BC. The late Catherine Acholonu called attention to megaliths in the Cross River region of Nigeria and Cameroon. She estimated a total up to 32 such sites, but did not indicate that these all were circles. Sometimes a single standing stone marked a sacred shrine. Apparently, at least one circle has been found at Emangabe.

In Sardinia, 200 menhirs in the locality Biru‘e Concas have been dated between the late Neolithic (3200-2800 BC) and the Eneolithic (2800-1800 BC). These are located at the geographic center of Sardinia.

There are about 40 Paleolithic sites in the Judean hills, many of them near Bethlehem. Human habitation in the area of Bethlehem between (100,000-10,000 BC) is well-attested along the north side of Wadi Khareitun where there are three caves: Iraq al-Ahmar, Umm Qal’a, and Umm Qatafa. These caves were homes in a wooded landscape overlooking a river. At Umm Qatafa archaeologists have found the earliest evidence of the domestic use of fire in Palestine.

Chalcolithic finds in the Judean caves include clay vessels decorated with red paint, ropes, reed mats, shell and bone necklaces, leather, wood artifacts, flint implements, and globular stone grinding and pounding vessels.

Thursday, November 12, 2015

Understanding the Axial Age

Alice C. Linsley

In 1949 the German philosopher Karl Theodor Jaspers coined the phrase “ die Achsenzeit” (“the Axial Age” or “the Axis age”) to describe a period between approximately 900 - 200 BC. Jaspers believed that during this age “The spiritual foundations of humanity were laid simultaneously and independently and these are the foundations upon which humanity still subsists today.”

The Axial Age is the period in which the following world religions began to develop:
  1. Buddhism
  2. Daoism (Taoism) 
  3. Hinduism (the Upanishads)
  4. Jainism
  5. Judaism
  6. The Mediterranean mystery cults
  7. Zoroastrianism
Recognizing the influence of Plato and Aristotle on early Christian writers, some scholars list Christianity. However, as Christianity is essentially about Jesus Messiah (Christ), it must be linked to the messianic expectation of Abraham's Proto-Saharan ancestors (c. 5000-3000 BC). 

The Axial Age was an era of change as the archaic social structures weakened and in some places collapsed. The authority of deified rulers was questioned. Criticism arose of the abuse of the populace. There were realignments of archaic clan confederations. The Indo-Aryans were by now fully entrenched in northern India. Babylon was conquered by Cyrus the Great whose policies of religious tolerance encouraged new developments in Judea. Castes remained, but instead of being itinerant, as many of the lower castes (tanners, potters) were, they settled on the outskirts of cities. Also with urbanization came shop keepers who sold pottery and leather goods in the central market places so people no longer paid the tanners (the Tahash/Dravidian Madiga) and potters directly. The ancient shrine gods were replaced by urban gods, such as the "city god" Ch'eng Huang, who presided over civic affairs. Monotheism and atheism emerged, and in India, the ancient Horite foundations of the Vedas were submerged under an increasingly complex polytheism.

Mark W. Muesse, in his introductory volume on Hinduism, writes, "The Axial Age saw a prodigious output of critical ideas and the appearances of some of the greatest individuals known to the world." (p. 62) A tidal wave of intellectual energy swept the globe from Japan and China to Iberia and Gaul, and from the Alps to North Africa.

Historian Peter Watson considers the Axis Age to be the epoch when humanity's most influential philosophical and religious traditions became more or less institutionalized. Schools of thought emerged that delved into metaphysical questions and laid the foundations for natural science. For example, the idea of constant change or transformation was explored in both East and West (Heraclitus, 535 - 475 BC) and Lao Tzu/Tzi (d. 531 BC). The thought of these two philosophers is similar and reflects the intellectual effort to come to grips with the sweeping social changes of the 6th-3rd centuries BC.

The Pre-Socratic philosopher Heraclitus was an atheist. He proposed that all is one (monism), and the world has no beginning, but instead represents incessant transformations, like the constant flow of a river. He believed in a lawlike flux of elements that involves transformation within the unity. He notes the binary sets evident in the order on Nature. The pairs of apparent opposites (binary sets) such as male/female, day/night, high/low, and living/dying conform to the eternal logos (Word) that makes all things one. Opposites are necessary for life. They are unified in a system of balanced exchanges. Male cannot exist without female. Nor can female exist without male. Night flows into day, life into death. One cannot exist without the other, just as a river will lose its identity if it ceases to flow.

In the West the concept of the unity and periodic renewal of all things is represented by the ouroboros. The Greek word means "tail devourer." This image is found in ancient Egypt as early as the 14th century BC. Among the ancient Celts the image represented the connection between heaven and earth.

In the East, transformation, balance and the unity of all things is portrayed in the image of yingyang. Yinyang involves 3 related concepts. They are: (1) yinyang as the coherent fabric of nature and mind, exhibited in all existence, (2) yinyang as jiao (interaction) between the waxing and waning (flux) of the cosmic and human realms, and (3) yinyang as a harmonization process ensuring a constant, dynamic balance of all things.

Both ouroboros and yingyang are associated with alchemy, divination, and spells.

The concepts of monism, transformation and balance are found in the writings of the Axial Age Chinese philosophers who acknowledged the Confucian virtues, but criticized the rigid social structures of ancient China. Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu (370-287 BC) are examples. Chuang Tzu is also known as Zhuangzi.

When I let go of what I am, I become what I might be.-- Lao Tzu

He who controls others may be powerful, but he who has mastered himself is mightier still.-- Lao Tzu

Flow with whatever is happening and let your mind be free. Stay centered by accepting whatever you are doing. This is the ultimate.-- Chuang Tzu

Once upon a time, I dreamt I was a butterfly, fluttering hither and thither, to all intents and purposes a butterfly. I was conscious only of my happiness as a butterfly, unaware that I was myself. Soon I awaked, and there I was, veritably myself again. Now I do not know whether I was then a man dreaming I was a butterfly, or whether I am now a butterfly, dreaming I am a man.--Chuang Tzu

The principal Daoist texts are the Zhuangzi and the Laozi. Laozi means “Old (lao) Master (zi)” and refers to a Chinese sage of the 6th century BC. Some scholars believe him to be a legendary figure, but whether legendary or historical, he has been credited with the short book, the Laozi (The Book of the Way and its Virtue). The two texts reveal parallel ideas and themes, and share some phrases. Both books promote carefree wandering. A legend holds that Lao Tzu wandered as an old man through the Hangu Pass on an ox. Zhuangzi promoted wandering as a means of becoming one with "the Way" (Dào) by following nature. He said, "A path is made by walking on it."

Against the more traditionalist Confucians, these texts explore a way that leans toward anarchy, tolerance of others, laissez faire government, and sympathy with the common man. They reject the way of the archaic rulers who legitimized their reigns by claiming divine appointment. They also reject the binary worldview of the archaic world.

In Asian dualism the opposites are of equal value or strength. However, among the ancient Habiru one entity in the binary set was regarded as superior in some obvious way to the other. The sun is greater than the moon which merely reflects the sun's light. Males are bigger and stronger than females. Life is more precious than death. This enabled the prophets of old to discern God’s will by reading the signs in creation and directing the people toward the superior sign.

The ancients regarded heaven as more glorious than earth and sought to pattern their rule on earth "as in heaven." However, heaven and earth have equal power in dualism. Pao-p'u Tzu wrote, "As heaven and earth are the greatest of things, it is natural, from the point of view of universal principles, that they have spiritual power. Having spiritual power it is proper that they reward good and evil."

While Daoism stresses the unity and equality of the entities in a binary set, the biblical worldview stresses a distinction between the entities, and asserts that one entity is greater. 

The question of flux points to another difference between Daoism and the worldview of the ancient Habiru. If everything is in a constant state of transformation, it is not possible to speak of a fixed order in creation as is asserted in Genesis 1; Psalm 104:19-20, and Jeremiah 33:19-36. Water undergoes transformation. It may be liquid, vapor or solid ice, but the essence of water remains the same. It is always H2O. Because the order of creation is fixed, entities can only be what they were created. Their outward form may change, but their essence and their ultimate purpose remains the same, as Aristotle recognized in his teleological conversations.