Sunday, September 19, 2010

Noah's Sons and Their Descendants

Alice C. Linsley

The earth was not re-populated by Noah's sons after a worldwide flood, but there is genetic evidence that these archaic rulers did have many children. Their R1 DNA has been found from Lake Chad to the Nile Valley to Europe and China.

The Hungarians, for example, claim to be descendants of Noah's son Japheth. In the Hungarian origin stories, Nimrod had two sons: Magor and Hunor. Magor is the equivalent of the Afro-Asiatic name Magog and the Hungarian word Magyar. Magyar is the name for the Hungarian people. Some Magyar still live in the Upper Nile area where they are called the Magyar-ab, the Magyar tribe.

This study compared the Y-DNA of Hungarians with other Finno-Ugrian populations to understand why modern Hungarians have so little of the typical Uralic haplogroup N1c. A few individuals from a 10th-century cemetery were tested and half of the individuals belonged to N1c. Ob-Ugrian is in the the macro-haplogroup N, with its sibling M, and is a descendant of haplogroup L3, originating in the Nile Valley. The Ob River is the main river of Western Siberia. It originates far to the south in the Altai Mountains and flows northward until it empties into the Kara Sea (part of the Arctic Ocean). Ob is an Afro-Asiatic word meaning ruler. Some rulers among the ancient Horites had the title Oba and the first ruler of Petra in Horite Edom was called Obadas.

According to Toomas Kivisild "the lack of L3 lineages other than M and N in India and among non-African mitochondria in general suggests that the earliest migration(s) of modern humans already carried these two mtDNA ancestors, via a departure route over the Horn of Africa."  Kivisild notes that the DNA is consistent with the caste practice of endogamy.

Tree of Life on Magyar sabertache (tarsoly) plate

Genesis tells us that Noah had three sons: Ham, Shem and Japheth. To these sons and their wives were born diverse peoples who we call "Afro-Asiatics." At the point in history of Noah's sons, they are more African than Asiatic, as is evident by the name given to Ham's son "Kush" (Gen. 10:6), the ancestral head of the ancient Kushites or Nubians who ruled the Upper Nile region. Ham is also the ancestral head of peoples identified with ancient Egypt, Ethiopia and Canaan.

It was the custom of these rulers to have 2 wives in separate households on a north-south axis. This made it easier for the rulers to control and tax commercial traffic moving through their territories. Remembering that Noah and his sons lived in the part of Africa through which the Nile flowed northward from its headlands in Nigeria, we can understand the practicality of this custom. In Canaan the commercial traffic moved in a north-south direction also.

In Genesis, 3 sons represent a tribal unity and there are many such units listed. Consider these 3-clan confederations:

Jubal, Jabal and Tubal-Kain
Ham, Shem and Japheth
Haran, Nahor and Abraham
Yisbak, Esau and Jacob
Og, Magog and Gog
Uz, Buz and Huz

Within these confederations three priest lines consistently intermarried. So the lines of Ham and Shem intermarried and the lines of Nahor and Abraham intermarried. It appears that Japheth's descendants moved out of the Upper Nile area into Europe and the Near East.

Ham was the father of great kingdom-builders whose territories spread from Nigeria to southern India.  Kush was one of Ham's sons and Kush fathered the rulers Raamah and Nimrod by 2 different wives. Nimrod build a vast kingdom in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley and Raamah's kingdom stretched from Tyre and Sidon to the cities of the Dead Sea Plain.  Raamah's sons were Sheba and Dedan, who intermarried with the people of Shem.  Genesis 10 tells us that Nimrod's son by his patrilineal cousin was Asshur, but this son technically belonged to the House of Shem. Likely Arpachshad was Nimrod's son by his half-sister wife.

Shem's descendants intermarried with the descendants of Ham. Rulers of Shem's house include Asshur, Arpachshad, Selah, and Eber. Eber's two sons were Peleg and Joktan (see diagram). These were born of different wives and the Bible tells us that a "division" took place in this generation (Gen. 10:25).  One of Joktan's sons was Sheba, the grandson of Sheba the Elder, the grandson of Kush, the son of Ham.  Sheba the elder's brother was Dedan.  The Dedanites were the first to use Old Arabic script. The Asshurites and the Elamites used a different script so it is clear that there was a division linguistically.

The descendants of Japheth are found in Europe, Turkey, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Upper Nile. This explains the linguistic similarity between some Afro-Asiatic names and some Turkish, Pashtun and Mongolian names, including Jochi, Beri, Malik and Khan. Khan was originally a title meaning king. Today it is a common surname in Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Mongolia. It is equivalent to the Afro-Asiatic Kain or Kayan.

Genghis Khan married a woman of the Olkut’Hun, or Ogur Hun meaning the Hun clan/community. The word ogur means clan/community and appears to be equivalent to the Pashto orkut, meaning community. So ogur, orkut and olkut are cognates and likely related to the Kandahar dialect, which has Tir-hari as a principal dialect. Tir is a form of the name Tiras, mentioned in Genesis 10 and hari is a form of the word for Horite, which relates to Horus and his devotees. It appears that Genghis Khan married into a community with connections to Abraham's Horite Hebrew people.

In Genesis 9:27, we are told that "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem." This doesn't support the view that Japheth and Shem were separated by great distances. It appears that the two lineages dwelt together and intermingled. The descendants of both Japheth and Shem are found in Europe, Turkey (ancient Anatolia), Pakistan, Bactria, Mongolia and the Upper Nile. This explains the linguistic similarity between some Afro-Asiatic/Semitic names and names/titles in Turkish, Pashtun and Mongolian, including Jochi (Joktan/Yaqtan), Beri, Malik and Khan. Khan was originally a title, meaning king. Today it is a common surname in Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Mongolia. The biblical equivalent is Cain or Qayan. Some of the Pashtun tribes adopted Malik as the ruler's title instead of Khan. Malik is equivalent to the Afro-Asiatic/Semitic Melek, meaning king.

Related reading: Where Dwelleth Japheth;  Haplogroups of Interest to Biblical AnthropologistsWas Earth Repopulated By Noah's Descendants?; Who Were the Horites?; The Extent of Noah's Flood; The Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried; Y-Chromosome Haplotypes in Egypt; African Religion Predates Hinduism


  1. Tubal-Kain.
    In the 1960s, I met a Romany girl and her sister. Their mother had decided to settle in order to give them access to an education because "life is hard on the road and we don't have a future without education". This girl and her sister were beautiful- long, straight black hair, brown eyes with facial features and skin colour that would have made them hard to distinguish from many similarly beautiful Indian girls migrating into the UK at that time. This girl was proud of her Romany background and history. She explained that her people were descended from Tubal- Kain "in the Bible", who she said was a metal worker, as were her people until fairly recently when they had been forced to live by other means. She seemed to be repeating the oral history of her ancestors.
    Bear with me here- there may [?] be a connection that you can see in what follows, Alice!
    In the 1990's, I met a man who was working as a Wycliff Bible Translator. His specialism was in the study of the Tamishek [Correct spelling?] language and he spent long periods in remote wadis in Niger, carrying out complicated Language Surveys with Tuareg groups. He said that he had found that these Tuareg and many 'Gypsy" groups in Europe/UK could understand each other; they used the same vocabulary. He gave me a couple of Gospel tracts that he had written [to share with some traveller children who were attending my school.] These were entitled 'The Way' and the word for 'way' in the sense of 'road to' was 'drom'.
    A few years later, we met again. He had moved on to central western India to conduct an initial Language Survey amongst a tribe there that claimed to have originated from Africa. He said that many of these people were more 'African" than "Indian" in their physical characteristics but his survey showed that, if they had come from Africa, they had been through some traumatic process that had deprived their language of African features; he called it a linguistic bottle neck. However, in other states of India, he had found people who fully understood his tracts. He was thinking that there must have been some sort of historic process that had resulted in Tamishek speakers of Niger, a few groups of people within India, European Romanni and UK traveller groups all being able to communicate through a shared set of language features.
    Perhaps the DNA might lead in the direction of Tubal- Kain et al?

    1. Gerrie,

      Thanks for this information! The Roma are a very ancient people. They are called Tinkers, Travelers and Gypsies. All three names identify them as wandering metal workers whose origin in the Nile Valley (Egypt - Gypsy).

    2. Romani are proven both linguistically and genetically to originate from the Rajasthan / Panjab region of nw India. This is also supported through the study of flamenco music of Spanish Romani and comparing it to music and dance of modern Rajasthan

  2. I know this article is super old but I was doing some research on biblical ancestry of Hungarians and came across this, so hopefully you're still around. If Hungarians claim to be descendants of Japheth, then how does it then follow that they're Japhetic through Nimrod if Nimrod is the son of Ham? Also doesn't the Bible state that Magog is a descendant of Japheth?

  3. They HUngarians call themselves the Magyar and the Magyar also live along the Nile. Abraham's ancestors came from tne Nile Valley and the Lake Chad Basin. These rulers established territories outside of Africa. Nimrod, the son of Cush, built his territory in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Abraham is a descendant of Nimrod. The Clan of Japheth appears to have moved north from the Nile to Southern Europe and then along the Carpathian mountains. There is no evident that the rulers of the clans associates with Japheth intermarried with the ruling lines of Ham and Shem, but there is evidence that the ruling lines of Ham and Shem intermarried. Abraham is a descendent of both Ham and Shem. Click on the diagram in this article:

    Also see this:

  4. Surely Shem would be people of the Middle East (Y haplogroup J) into Iran with the descendants of the Elamites (Shem son Elam) across into the original Indians (prior to haplogroup R from Central Asia and Eastern Europe). From Shem we get the Elamo-Dravian people and also those with Haplogroup I (including Gypsies of Europe). Shem would also include those spread through Eastern Europe up into Scandinavia carrying the Y haplogroup I. Maybe I is Joktan and Peleg was J?

    1. It does seem logical that the Gypsies descended from Joktan. There are many linguistic connections between their languages

  5. The surname "Khan" found among Pashtuns/Indians/Pakistanis is because of long period of Turkic rule over their territories. Khan is a Turk Title.

  6. Many Turkish words have roots in more ancient languages such as Akkadian. Even the Egyptians were in Turkey. They build a shrine called "Meroe" on the Orontes (the Draco).

  7. What is your scource that Noah was R1 ? He was more likely J .

  8. Alice,

    Is there any attainable information that connects certain peoples / tribes of today to the Biblical sons of Noah? I've seen your articles about the Hungarian connections to Japheth and Sargon the Great to Nimrod, but is there more information concerning some of the other sons of Noah?

  9. I am a Romany can you help me ?
    Are we 1 of 10?
    And if so where in the bible

  10. I wish I could help you. I only can offer speculation on the question of Romany origins. I believe your people are related to the metal workers who served the rulers of the archaic world. The chiefs of these metal workers tended to do metal work, moving back and forth between fixed settlements. The archaic metal workers have numerous clans and marry only their own people. In the Bible there are numerous groups of metal workers or smiths. Perhaps you can identify some of the old Romany clans with the names of the biblical clans? The metal workers of the Bible include the Kenites, the Horites, the Badarians, the clan of Karnevo, and the clan of Lamech, whose son Tubal-Cain was a famous metal worker. I hope this is helpful.


  11. The metal workers of the Bible include the Kenites, the Horites, the Badarians, the clan of Karnevo, and the clan of Lamech, whose son Tubal-Cain was a famous metal worker. There seems to be a correspondence between this list and the Romany list of clans: Horváth, Badžo, Badi, Červeňák, Holomek, Daniel, and Mirga.

  12. If you are on Facebook, join the group The Bible and Anthropology. We will try to help you find some answers.

  13. This may be helpful.

  14. I did a DNA test on my mother, father, son and myself and discovered that my Irish father is haplogroup R1B and my mother is H3 but has romany ancesters as her father was from the NW of India, Her Haplogroup is very wide spread amongst the Tauregs of North Africa and it turns out that she also has some DNA with the native Guanches of the Canary Islands which is very close to Morroco, Her fathers surname was Rahman Khan and he was from Kashmir. I had no idea I had Roma ancestors but they seem to be all over the world in Finland (Kale) Eastern Europe and even in The Midlands and in Cumbria. I have discovered that there was a very famous gypsy family called the Boswells in The Midlands and I have a few DNA matches with them.

  15. DNA tracing is helping to clarify the movement of earlier populations and we are finding that humans were moving around the globe much earlier than was previously believed.

  16. I have just found you ! Thank you so much for sharing all your knowledge .

  17. Those who want a detailed study of the biblical Hebrew's dispersion out of Africa long before the time of Abraham should get my book The First Lords of the Earth: An Anthropological Study (Amazon, July 2023).


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