Monday, July 20, 2015

Was King Arthur a Descendant of the Horite Rulers?

Alice C. Linsley

In the ancient world, the R1b Annu/Ainu/Anakh dispersed widely. They built their shrines near water on mountains or elevated places. This was true along the Nile, in the Baltic region, in Southern China, Northern Japan and Okinawa, and in Cornwall. The Cornish fortress of Tintagel or Trevena is an example. In Cornish, it is called Tre war Venydh, meaning "village on a mountain."

Remains of Tintagel Fortress

Legend has it that King Arthur was born at Tintagel Castle. The ruins of Tintagel Castle stand on an island dominating the 300 feet (90 meters) high cliffs. Tin (or din) means fortress and tagel refers to a constriction or narrows, as in the neck of an island. Arthur was born into a Christian noble family of Cornwall which exercised influence on Christian missions and the defense of the Faith against Pagans from about 480-530. Christian priests were already well established in Cornwall, Devon and Ireland by 44 AD.

Tintagel Castle and the nearby village are associated with Arthur. It is thought that his name is related to the Brittonic root arto, meaning bear (Greek artos means bread.) That is possible, as the Ainu who passed through this region were bear hunters and also venerated the bear as a sacred totem. However, I would like to suggest a different possibility. King Ar-thur might as well indicate a ruler of the Ar clans of Hur, or a Horite ruler. C. S. Lewis regarded Arthur to perfectly fit the pattern of the "righteous ruler" exemplified by the Biblical Horites (Horim). This is why speculation about his miraculous birth and his return to England sprang up.

The Ravenna Cosmography, compiled around 700 AD from Roman material 300 years older, lists a route running westward into Cornwall. On this route is a place then called Duro-cornovio. The Latin Duro-cornovio corresponds to the British Celtic duno-Cornouio-n, which means "fortress of the Cornish people." However, the original name for Cornwall was Kernow, which is related to the words Karnak and Karnevo. Kar is a archaic root that refers to a circular place of ritual. Kar-nak refers to the rite of teeth removal among the ancient Nilotes.

"Terah took a wife and her name was Amsalai, the daughter of Karnevo; and the wife of Terah conceived and bare him a son in those days." Jasher 7:50

The words duno and duro are related to the Ana'kh word dar, which refers to a citadel or a fortress. The Aramaic word for fortress is derived from dar, and the Arabic word dayr means monastery. The Akkadian dûr refers to a fortress, as in Dûr-Sharrukin, meaning “Sargon's fortress."

The Annu/Ainu/Anakh were known as masters of stone monuments, tombs and mining operations. They built sacred circles in reverence to the Sun, the emblem of the Creator. Ki-kar refers to a circle as in Exodus 25:11: ki-kar za-hav ta-hor, meaning "circle of pure gold." In the Anchor Bible Commentary on Genesis, E.A. Speiser recognizes that kikar refers to a circle.

From 400,000 BC to 200,000 BC, archaeological finds of flint axes and blades indicate that people were living in Devon and moving through Cornwall which was a good hunting ground, as it was too far south to be under the ice sheet. By 40,000 BC settlements dotted South West Britain.

Carn Euny, Sancreed, near Penzance

Carn Euny is an Iron Age settlement consisting of courtyard houses and the remains of round houses. The village dates from the the 1st century BC, though there is evidence that the site had been settled since the Bronze Age. Carn Euny is best known for the well-preserved fogou, a large underground passageway, which is more than 65 feet (20 metres) long. This fogou runs just below the surface of the ground and is roofed with massive stone slabs typical of the tunnels built by the R1b stone masons.

Mining in Cornwall and Devon began in approximately 2150 BC. From that time Horite mining experts were present in Cornwall. In the 1st century AD, one of those experts was Joseph of Ar-Mathea, which means Yosef of the Ar clan of Matthew.

Genetic studies have confirmed that the Horite Ainu dispersed widely across the ancient world. Some migrated to Hokkiado (Northern Japan) and Okinawa. Others came to the British Isles and Scandinavia. From there, some migrated to Greenland, Labrador, and Eastern Canada where they came to be called "Miqmac" by the French. The Ainu have a Nilotic origin and are described as having a red skin tone. Interestingly, an early population living in Cornwall were the Dam-oni, which means “red people.” The word Dam-oni is derived from two words found in the Bible: dam, a reference to red and blood, and oni/On, a reference to the great shrine city of Heliopolis, biblical On (Genesis 41:45). Joseph married the daughter of a priest of On. The Dam-oni may have come from Carnac (Karnac) in Brittany because the stone monoliths in Damnonia are like those in Carnac, though smaller. On the Nile, the ancient shrine at Karnak was built with huge stones by skillful craftsmen, the likely ancestors of these early inhabitants of Cornwall.

In the region where Joseph of Ar-Mathea is said to have visited there are many Hebrew place names like Marazion, meaning "sight of Zion" and Menheniot, which is derived from the Hebrew words min oniyot, meaning "from ships." Menheniot was a center of lead mining.


  1. Curtis I. CaldwellJuly 21, 2015 at 6:43 AM

    Thank you for the note about Joseph of Ar-Mathea.

    Evidence of his presence in Britain is helpful.

    I saw a note that he was present in 63 AD: Legendary mission of St. Philip to France, whence he sent Joseph of Arimathea and his companions to England.

    James P. Carley, “A Grave Event: Henry V, Glastonbury Abbey, and Joseph of Arimathea’s Bones”, pages 285 -302, Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian Tradition, James P. Carley (editor), published by D. S. Brewer, Cambridge (2001). ISBN 0 85991 572 7. viewed 14 OCT 2014. Paper originally published in Culture and the King: The Social Implications of the Arthurian Legend. Essays in Honor of Valerie M. Lagorio, ed. M. B. Shichtman and J. P. Carley (Albany, 1994), pp. 129-48. See note for year 1421.

    1421: The preamble of a letter by Abbot Nicholas Frome to Henry V in late spring or early summer of 1421 asserted Joseph of Arimathea and his companions were sent to England in A.D. 63 by St. Philip, who was on mission to France. It was copied from materials found in William of Malmesbury’s interpolated De Antiquitate Glastonie Ecclesie and in John’s chronicle.

  2. Thank you, Curtis, for that thoughtful and helpful comment.

    AD 63 seems a bit late to me, but it hardly matters. It is evident that the Horite priesthood was established in South West Britain before Herod built the Second Temple.


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