Dr. Alice C. Linsley
Among the early Hebrew the authority of the ruler, both male and female, was derived from the High God. They saw themselves as divinely appointed to represent the High God on earth which also meant that they were to govern according to sacred law.
Among the early Hebrew the symbol of male authority was the rod or staff, and the symbol of female authority was the spindle. (See K. Veenhof and P. Sanders onthe spindle in Prov. 31:9 and 2 Sam. 3:29.)A title for royal ladies who served at Bronze Age water shrines was rabitu. Ra-bitu is from the Akkadian words for water (raatu) and house/shrine (biitu). The emblem of the rabitu was the spindle. In the Ugaritic story of Elimelek, the queen mother holds the title "rabitu" and her emblem is the spindle. Some images of the Virgin Mary show her holding a spindle, as in the image below.
The Ark was a symbol of royal authority derived from YHWH. That is why it rested for a time in Gibeah, Saul's hometown. After David became king, he brought the ark from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:1-12). For three months the Ark rested in Bethlehem, David’s hometown, in the house of Obed-Edom.
The idea of God's presence "between the horns" predates Judaism. It is evident in the name Yesu which is clearly related to the name Yeshua (Jesus). Yesu is comprised of the following hieroglyphs:
The feather (letter Y) stands for one who judges, measures, or weights. The next symbol represents horns. The third symbol is the sedge plant which represents a king, and finally the falcon, the totem of Horus, the patron of kings.
Derived Authority, Attributed Authority, and Achieved Authority
The biblical Hebrew recognized three types of authority: derived, attributed, and achieved. The deification of rulers required derived and attributed streams of authority. Because the ruler was seen as God's representative on earth and the one to enforce divine law, his authority was derived from God.
If the ruler proved over time to be just or righteous in his actions and decrees, the priests would attribute deification. This was noted by the SR designation in the ruler's epithet and or royal name. The historical ruler Osiris was deified as is evident in his name O-SiR. Among the Sumerians and Akkadians SR designated a king (šarrum) and a queen (šarratum).