Thursday, February 9, 2023

The Exodus Narrative from a Different Angle


Alice C. Linsley

Analysis of the kinship pattern of Moses’ family reveals that Moses was Horite Hebrew. The Horites and the Sethites constituted the Hebrew ruler-priest caste. The Hebrew married only within their caste (endogamy) which explains why so many of the people in the Hebrew Scriptures are related by marriage or have common ancestry.

The oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship is Nekhen on the Nile (4200 BC). This settlement predates the building of the Great Pyramids at Giza and the step pyramid of King Djoser (Third Dynasty). The oldest known tomb, with painted mural on its plaster walls, is located in Nekhen and dates to c. 3500–3200 BC.

The Horite mounds and the Sethite mounds were sacred Hebrew settlements along the Nile. Though separate groups or moieties, they shared common religious practices and beliefs, and they worshiped the same God and served the same king.

It is clear in the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (2400-2000 BC) that the Horites and the Sethites maintained separate settlements. Utterance 308 addresses them as separate entities: "Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Mounds! Hail to you, Horus in the Sethite Mounds!"

PT Utterance 470 contrasts the Horite mounds with the mounds of Seth, designating the Horite Mounds "the High Mounds."

This diagram shows the relationship between Moses and Seir, the Horite Hebrew ruler mentioned in Genesis 36.

Moses was a sent-away son

As the son of Amram's cousin bride, Moses was not Amram's proper heir. Analysis of the social structure of the early Hebrew suggests that Moses was sent to live for a time with his maternal uncle Jethro in Midian (avuncular residence). That is the same pattern exhibited by Jacob who was sent away to live for a time with his maternal uncle Laban. In both cases, these sent-away sons struck out to establish territories of their own. That is one way to think of the "Exodus", except Moses didn't live to rule over a territory of his own.

Keep in mind also, that the biblical narrative of the Exodus is the story of only one Hebrew clan, the clan of Jacob who was called Israel. There were many other Hebrew clans and some of them were living in Canaan. The Hebrew had dispersed widely before the time of Abraham. They had already settled in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and other regions of the Ancient Near East.

Exodus 17:12 describes an event that connects Moses to an earlier Horite ruler. "But Moses' hands grew weary, so they took a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it, while Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on one side, and the other on the other side. So his hands were steady until the going down of the sun". 

King Hor (c. 1800 B.C.)

About 300 years before the time of Moses, there was a Horite king whose statue shows him with up-raised arms over his head. From predynastic times, this ka/kah (K3) symbol indicated divine authority, potency, and the sustaining power of the Spirit.

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