Followers

Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Male and Female are Primary in Hebrew Scriptures

 


Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626) was an English bishop who oversaw the translation of the King James Version of the Bible, also known as the Authorized Version.

Dr. Alice C. Linsley

A detailed study of gender in the Hebrew Scriptures reveals that male and female are primary to the Hebrew worldview and to their understanding of God Father and God Son. In recent decades critics of the binary balance of Scripture have falsely claimed that the social structure of the biblical Hebrew was patriarchal. However, anthropological analysis of their social structure reveals that it was characterized by binary balance. This balance is expressed in various biblical narratives. 

There are many examples: the distinct duties/responsibilities of the mother's house versus the father's house; male prophets-female prophets; male rulers-female rulers; inheritance by male heirs-inheritance by female heirs, patrilocal residence-matrilocal residence; Hebrew patronymics-Hebrew matronymics; and in the Hebrew double unilineal descent pattern, both the patrilineage and the matrilineage are recognized and honored, but in different ways. 

The blood symbolism of the Passover associated with Moses has a parallel in the blood symbolism of the scarlet cord associated with Rahab. The abusive behavior of drunken Noah toward his sons has a parallel in the abusive behavior of drunken Lot toward his daughters.

To understand the gender distinctions and binary balance of the early Hebrew, we must dismiss the false narrative that their social structure was patriarchal.

The traits of a strict patriarchy do not apply to the Hebrew from whom we receive the foundation of the Messianic Faith we call "Christianity". There were women chiefs and rulers among them. Women could inherit. Line of descent was traced through high-status wives, especially the cousin brides. Residential arrangements included neolocal, avunculocal, matrilocal, and patrilocal. Assessment of the biblical data reveals that male-female responsibilities and rights were balanced, yet distinct.


Mother’s House versus Father’s House

A very ancient practice is alluded to in Ruth 1:8-9. Here Naomi urges her daughters-in-law to return to their “mother’s house.” This is Naomi’s way of encouraging Orpah and Ruth to remarry. Hoping that they will marry again, Naomi sends them back to their mothers.

The “mother's house” is where women gathered to plan weddings for betrothed girls. The women attended to the practical arrangements for weddings and the items needed to set up a new household. On the other hand, the “father's house” was where the fathers deliberated the terms of the marriage involving dowry, inheritance, and property. The elders of the village were present to witness the deliberations. Sometimes fathers denied marriage to eligible daughters.

A woman who was forbidden to marry (or re-marry) was to return to her father's house. When Judah refused to marry another of his sons to Tamar, as was required by the Levirate marriage law, he told her to return to the father’s house (Gen. 38:11).

Scholars have noted that Rebecca ran to her mother's house to announce the marriage proposal from Isaac (Gen. 24:28). Running to her mother's house expressed Rebecca's willingness to accept Isaac’s proposal. This practice entails more than preparing for a wedding and a new household. It is about building a lineage. Naomi tells both of her widowed daughters-in-law to return to their "mother's house" in the hopes that they would remarry and have families.


Gender and the Priesthood

There are no female priests among the biblical Hebrew. The sacrificing priest would be covered with the blood of the slain animal. Since women were regarded as life-givers, their blood work (menses and childbirth) and the blood work of the priest could never be in the same space.

The male priest is a sign that points to the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Every Christian priest stands at altar in the person of Christ whose maleness cannot be denied without eviscerating the biblical understanding of His blood sacrifice. By His death comes the forgiveness of sins.

Consistent with the binary balance of Scripture, we find the Virgin Mary is another sign that points to her son. The honor due to her is unique since she alone brought forth the Messiah, the Christ. By her submission and divine overshadowing (Luke 1:35) comes the One who overcomes sin and death.

A male standing at altar is appropriate when we contemplate the blood sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Women priests cause confusion because the sacrament of Christ's giving of Himself is about His Blood, a covering for sin. Female priests overthrow the binary balance.

Were we to contemplate the humble Virgin Mary, would it be appropriate to place before us a male image?

It is no coincidence that the innovation of women priests was first introduced by a denomination that had embraced Feminist thought and had created binary imbalance by promoting erroneous interpretations of Scripture and by dismissing the veneration of the Virgin Mary.


Eve, the Crown of Creation

In the creation stories Eve is the last creature to be given life by the Creator. In this sense she crowns the creation. The biblical Hebrew conceived of the order of creation as a hierarchy, somewhat like the shape of a mountain or a pyramid. The dwelling place of the High God is above the peak and at the peak is the crown of creation. Eve is vulnerable to attack by the Evil One who seeks to invert the hierarchy, placing himself at the head. Eve's submission to the ground-crawling serpent represents a metaphysical reversal of the divine order of creation. 

We live in this reversed state until Christ returns. This is what the Apostle Paul means when he speaks of the whole of Creation groaning and yearning for the day of redemption (Rom. 8:22-23). 

"For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies."






Sunday, August 14, 2022

Nimrod and the Nile-Indus Connection

 


Dr. Alice C. Linsley


This article explores connections between Nimrod and the spread of religious beliefs and practices associated with the early Akkadians. According to Genesis 10, Nimrod was a Nilote (son of Kush) who built his kingdom in Mesopotamia. He is one of "the mighty men of old" described in Genesis 6. These earliest kingdom builders constructed cities, temples, and fortified high places. They controlled commerce on the major water systems of the ancient world. They migrated out of the Upper Nile Valley in different directions, and they were served by a prestigious caste of priests who later became known as Hebrew.

Akkad was one of the principal cities of Nimrod's kingdom. The language of his territory was Akkadian, the oldest known Semitic language. The Indian scholar, Malati J. Shendge, concluded that the language of the Harappans of the Indus Valley was Akkadian.

Ajay Pratap Singh has written, "Comparisons of Akkadian and Sanskrit words yielded at least 400 words in both languages with comparable phonetic and semantic similarities. Thus Sanskrit has, in fact, descended from Akkadian."

The Hebrew yasuah and the Sanskrit words asvah, asuah or yasuah, refer to salvation.

The Semitic words svam or samyim and the Sanskrit svah refer to the sky or heavens and resemble the Proto-Dravidian word van, meaning heaven.

The Semitic word wadi and the Sanskrit nadi mean river.

The Hebrew root thr means to be pure. It probably corresponds to the Tamil word tiru, meaning holy, and to the proto-Dravidian tor, meaning blood.

The Hebrew word for mother is iya and corresponds to the Dravidian ka ayi, meaning mother.

There also is a correspondence between the names Ram/Rama, Kush/Kusha, Karnak/Karnataka, and Hari/Hori which are found in Vedic and Hebrew texts. Other places names include Orisha in Nigeria and Orissa in India.

In the Omotic languages of Ethiopia the word ganga is related to words meaning river. This likely is the source of the name of the Ganges River. Other words like sanga (“having limbs”) suggest the meaning of the intervocalic "ng" which in Sanskrit appears in words associated with tributaries, extensions, off-shoots, or limbs. 

The word "Har-appa" is comprised of two words. One is Nilotic and the other is Dravidian. HR refers to the Most High God, symbolized by the Sun. "Appa" means father in Dravidian. Harappa means the Most High God is Father. Evidently, the Horite Hebrew priests spread their religion from ancient Kush to Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. 


Artifacts

Further evidence of the connection between the Nile and Indus Valley is demonstrated by comparing early Egyptian and Indus pottery inscriptions. Note that 17 figures under the headings "Indus Valley" and "Egyptian" (two columns on left) are almost identical.





Harappan artifacts are similar to those of the ancient Nile. The Indian archaeologist, B. B. Lal contends that the Dravidian artifacts reflect the pottery and structures of the Upper Nile Valley. Lal writes: "At Timos the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were identical." 

Various sciences confirm an early Nile-Indus connection: DNA studies, linguistics, archaeology, and anthropology. Michael Petraglia (University of Cambridge) and his team found stone tools at Jwalapuram in Andhra Pradesh in southern India. These were above and below a thick layer of ash from the Toba super eruption (74,000 years ago). Petraglia noted that the tools found in southern India are like those from the African Middle Stone Age about 100,000 years ago. He states, “Whoever was living in India was doing things identical to modern humans living in Africa.”

DNA research has shown that there have been two major migrations into India in the last 10,000 years. One originated from the Zagros region in south-western Iran between 7,000 and 3,000 B.C. The Zagrosian herders mixed with the earlier inhabitants of the subcontinent, descendants of the Out of Africa migrants who had reached India around 65,000 years ago. Together, they went on to create the Harappan civilization.

The German archaeologists Friedrichs and Muller identified some of the skulls of Mohenjo-Daro as "Hamitic." The term "Nilotic" would be more accurate.

Paleontologists B.K. Chatterjee and G.D. Kumer reported in "Comparative Study and Racial Analysis of the Skeletal Remains of the Indus Valley Civilization" that the 18 Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa skulls that they examined are "similar to skulls from Nubia during the third to second Millennium B.C." (See Wayne Chandler: "The Jewel in the Lotus: The Ethiopian Presence in the Indus Valley Civilization" in African Presence in Early Asia, Ivan Van Sertima et. a1. eds., 1985 p. 87)

Some old Hindu fire altars were constructed in the shape of a falcon. The falcon was the totem of Horus (HR), the son of the High God. This explains why the Shulba Sutras state that "he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."




B. B. Lal noted that originally there were seven fire altars at Kalibangan. The number seven represented fullness and heavenly blessing among the Harappans as it did for the biblical Hebrew. In Jewish weddings the Sheva Brachot (seven marriage blessings) are recited under the huppah and the wedding feast lasts 7 days. Among the Agharias of Orissa, India, the wedding begins with the bride’s father delivering a bracelet and seven small earthen bowls to the bride. The bride is seated in the open, and seven women hold the bowls over her head one above the other. Water is poured from one bowl into the other, each being filled in turn and the whole finally falling over the bride's head. The bowls of water represent the blessings from above by which the High God overcame the demonic forces that inhibited life on earth by withholding water. The bride is then bathed and carried in a basket seven times round the marriage-post, after which she is seated in a chair and seven women place their heads together round her while a male relative winds a thread seven times round the heads of the women.

It appears that the early Hebrew ruler-priests spread the Proto-Gospel concerning God Father and God Son. In the Axial Age, their faith degraded into polytheism and the proliferation of numerous world religions, including Hinduism and Judaism.




Friday, July 29, 2022

Gezer's Prominence in the Bronze Age



Bronze Age cities including Gezer (Courtesy BAR)


Gezer was inhabited as early as 4300 B.C. The original settlement consisted of cave dwellings and simple structures built across the mound until expansion began in the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000–1200 B.C.). This later period saw the construction of Gezer’s massive fortifications of large stone blocks and towers. A rare cache of gold and silver figurines dated to 3,600 years ago were found at Gezer inside a clay vessel within the foundations of a building.

Gezer also had the largest and oldest water system discovered in the ancient Near East. The system extends hundreds of feet below the tell, and archaeologists have discovered a natural cave at the bottom of the shaft. It likely is the source of the tunnel's water supply.


These standing stones date to around 400 years before the time of Abraham.
Photo: Dennis Cole


Today Gezer is famous for its ten standing stones (shown above) that date to the period of the standing stones erected on Salisbury Plain in England around 2500 B.C. Some rise more than 10 feet. This was a ceremonial site where treaties were ratified, coronations held, and official rituals observed. 

Gezer's prominence during the Middle Bronze Age was due to its control of the trade routes at the junction of the Via Maris with the Aijalon Valley. This eventually threatened Egyptian interests in the region. During the Late Bronze Age, Egypt sought to control its trade routes and exacted taxes from the region's city-states. Egyptian monuments and texts boast of the military campaigns against Gezer between 1479 and 1203 B.C. 

During the Late Bronze Age, Gezer and other cities in the southern Levant were under the control of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty. Hebrew University professor Tallay Ornan believes that Gezer’s destruction in the Late Bronze Age “either represents an Egyptian campaign to subdue Gezer, or local Canaanites attacking an Egyptian stronghold at Gezer.”


Gezer's six-chambered gate dates to the time of King Solomon. (Wikimedia Commons)


1 Kings 9:16–17 reports that the king of Egypt captured Gezer and burned it down. He later gave the city as dowry to his daughter who married King Solomon, and according to 1 Kings 9:17, Solomon rebuilt Gezer.

Monday, July 18, 2022

The Messianic Symbolism of the Horned Altar

 

Dr. Alice C. Linsley

This horned altar was excavated by a team led by Yohanan Aharoni in 1973 at Beersheba. The photograph is of the original reassembled altar when it was still at the site. Beersheba is where Abraham spent his last years. This altar was constructed about 1000 years after Abraham's time. 

Before 1000 B.C. the Horite and Sethite Hebrew priests had dispersed out of the Nile Valley into Canaan, Mesopotamia, and Anatolia. They had a custom of building stone altars with horns along the Nile. The space between the horns was a negative (apophatic) solar image representing the High God. In ancient Egyptian tst represented horns or a horned animal.

In this article we explore the biblical data surrounding horned altars. 

Exodus 27:2 gives this instruction for the construction of a horned altar by the Israelites (Jacob's clan).

You shall make horns for it on its four corners; its horns shall be of one piece with it, and you shall overlay it with bronze.

Exodus 30:2 reiterates that the horns shall be of one piece. 

It shall be one cubit long, and one cubit wide; it shall be square, and shall be two cubits high; its horns shall be of one piece with it.

Exodus 38:2 reiterates that the horned altar was to be covered with bronze.

He made horns for it on its four corners; its horns were of one piece with it, and he overlaid it with bronze.

Leviticus 4:7 indicates that there was a smaller horned altar upon which incense was burned. It explains how the blood was to be put on the horns of this altar.

The priest shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense that is in the tent of meeting before the Lord; and the rest of the blood of the bull he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the entrance of the tent of meeting.

Leviticus 4:18 explains where the rest of the blood is to be poured.

He [the priest] shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the Lord in the tent of meeting; and the rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the tent of meeting.


The Celestial Bull, a Messianic image, on a coffin.


Leviticus 4:25 describes how the blood of the sacrificed bull (a Messianic image) is to be put on the horns of the altar of sacrifice.

The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering and pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering.

Psalm 118:27 describes the procession to the horned altar in preparation for the sacrifice.
The LORD is God, and he has given us light. Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar.

According to the Pyramid Texts the Great Bull smites the enemies of his father Ra (Utterance 205). This is expressed again in Utterance 388: "Horus has shattered (tbb, crushed) the mouth of the serpent with the sole of his foot." Those words are echoed in Genesis 3:1, the first messianic prophesy of the Bible.

Golden bull found in King Tut's tomb


The bull is to be sacrificed so that the deceased king may eat the foreleg and haunch in the heavens (Pyramid Texts, Utterance 413). By forbidding the consumption of the thigh tendon attached to the hip (Gen. 32:32) Judaism distances itself from the Faith of the early Hebrew who believed in God Father and God Son. Judaism is not the Faith of Abraham the Hebrew.

The king is urged to rise, to "gather his bones together, shake off your dust" and enter into immortality. By eating the sacrifice, the deceased king becomes one with the sacred bull. The Eucharist echoes this ancient belief that the believer becomes one with Messiah when partaking by faith.

The early Hebrew believed that the rising of a righteous ruler would bring salvation to the people. Heavenly recognition for the early Hebrew was never an individual prospect. Heavenly recognition came to the people through the righteousness of their ruler-priest. The ascending king would lead his people to immortality.  

In the Coffin Texts, the king is to be immortal in his flesh, expressed by his eating and drinking. The kmhw bread of Horus which I have eaten" (Pyramid Texts, Utterance 338) is the food of immortality. The Egyptian word km means to bring to an end, to complete, or fulfill, and hw refers to the heavenly temple or mansion of the firmament above. The Akkadian variant is khenfu cakes which are mentioned in the ancient Code of Ani.

It appears that the "kmhw bread of Horus" is what the Church Fathers regard as the Bread which is the medicine of immortality and the antidote against death. Horus is the Greek for the ancient Egyptian HR, meaning Most High One.

Concerning himself, Jesus said that "unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day" (John 6:53-54).

Saturday, July 2, 2022

Belief in the High God

 


Alice C. Linsley


Before the Axial Age (8-3 century BC), belief in a supreme High God was nearly universal. This concept of God is found among peoples of Africa, the Americas, the South Pacific, northern Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia.

The High God was associated with the Heavens and is often referred to as the "Sky God." The High God is also associated with high mountains. The Bible contains accounts of worship of the High God on mountains or theophanies on mountains such as happened to Moses at the burning bush. Moses was told that the God who spoke to him was the God of his ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

In many early religious traditions, the High God was viewed as the King over a group of lesser deities or spiritual powers. This is called Henotheism.

In dualistic religions the High God has an evil adversary who rules over the lower realms. 

The early Hebrew associated the High God with the Sun. Their influence was felt from central Africa to Mesopotamia and Anatolia, and as far as the Indus River. The High God was called Ra (meaning "Father" in ancient Egyptian) and his son was called HR (Greek: Horus). In ancient Egyptian HR means "Most High One" or "Hidden One." 

The Mesopotamian equivalents of Ra and Horus are Anu and Enki. That Enki is the son of God is evident from ancient texts such as this one: "Enki, the king of the Abzu, justly praises himself in his majesty: 'My father, the king of heaven and earth, made me famous in heaven and earth." (See section 61-80)

In the early 2nd millennium BC version of the Atrahasis Epic, Anu is described as both father and king. “Anu their father was king.” (S. Dailey. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood. Gilgamesh and Others; Oxford University Press. 1989, p. 9.)

Likewise, Horus was said to recognize his father in the king. "Horus is a soul and he recognizes his Father in you..." (Pyramid Texts, Utterance 423)

Belief in God Father and God Son appears to be rare among the religions of the ancient world. It is the distinctive perspective of the early Hebrew and is likely the result of divine revelation. 

What follows is a limited list of populations that believe in a High God.


Among the early Persians the High God was called Ahura Mazda.

In early Vedic tradition, the High God was called Indra.

In Greco-Roman culture, the High God was called Zeus or Jupiter.

Among the Norse, the High God is called Thor or Odin.

Among the Samoyeds of northern Eurasia, the High God is called Num.

Among the Mongols the High God is called Tengri.

In China, the High God is known at Tian or Shangdi.

Among the Polynesians the High God is called Tangaroa.

Among the Inuit the God associated with the Sun is called Akycha and the High God is called Agunta or Tomgarsuk.

The Haida call the High God Sha-lana. He rules high in the clouds. In their creation story, Sha-lana looked down on a vast sea that stretched in all directions. 

Among the Sioux the High God is called Wakan Tanka.

Among the Incas the High God is called Inti.

Among the Aborigines of Australia, the High God is called Baiame (or Biame, Baayami, Baayama or Byamee).

Among the Gikuyu of East Africa the High God is called Murungu.

Among the Igbo of Nigeria, the High God is called Chukwu.

The Yoruba called the High God Olodumare.

The San called the High God Kaang and many stories about Kaang involve resurrection.

Among the Shilluk of Sudan the High God is called Juok or Jok.

Among the Oromo of East Africa, the High God is called Waaq.

Among the Fang of Central Africa, the High God is called Nzame.

Among the Luo of East Africa, the High God is called Lacwec. Some Luo use the term "Jachwech" which some believe is related to the Hebrew YHWH.

Among the Somalians, the traditional name for the High God was Eebe, and Eebe's messenger was Huur/Hur. The name Hur corresponds to the ancient Egyptian word HR (Horus). In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Horus is called the "advocate of his father" (cf. 1 John 2:1), and all the gods are said to be "in the train of Horus." Here we find the language of a royal procession such as this: "When He ascended on high, He led captives in his train, and gave gifts to men.” (Eph. 4:8).


God and His Son

Belief in God Father and God Son appears to have originated among peoples living in Africa. If we look to Africa, we find many stories that explain how the distance between God and Man came to be. These involve the withdrawing of God from earth. Consider the following story related to anthropologist Charles Kraft while he was studying tribal peoples in northern Nigeria. Kraft asked, "What did your people believe about God before the missionaries came?" In response, an old chief told this story:

"Once God and his son lived close to us. They walked, talked, ate, and slept among us. All was well then. There was no thievery or fighting or running off with another man's wife like there is now. But one day God's son ate in the home of a careless woman. She had not cleaned her dishes properly. God's son ate from a dirty dish, got sick, and died. This, of course, made God very angry. He left in a huff and hasn't been heard from since. (Charles Kraft, Christianity in Culture. Orbis Books, 1990, p. 153)

Some African stories speak of a time at the beginning when the sky was lower; the heavens closer to earth. The people had to take care while cultivating or pounding grain to not strike God's place with their hoes or pestles. The Akan of Ghana tell the story of how God once lived on earth, but an old woman kept striking him with her pestle. Then one day, God withdrew to the sky."

Another African story tells how "in the beginning death had not yet entered the world. There was plenty to eat, but a women became greedy and tried to pound more grain that she was allotted. This required using a longer pestle. When she raised it to pound the grain, it struck the sky and God became angry and withdrew far into the heavens. Since then, people must toil the earth, death and disease troubles the people and it is no longer easy to reach God." (Richard Bush, ed. The Religious World. MacMillan Publishers,1982., p. 38).

The Good News is that the distance has been bridged by the Son of God who came into the world, fully human and fully God.

Related reading: The Oldest Known ReligionHebrew at the Ancient Sun Cities; The God of GenesisThe Sun and Celestial Horses; The Sky Bull as Messianic Image


Monday, June 6, 2022

Eject the Stage Model of Human Evolution

 

Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.


From Louis Leakey in 1965:

"Current findings on human evolution have brought us to the position where much of what we believed to have theoretically happened proves to be incorrect. Much that is in the textbooks, much that is still being taught in universities about human evolution is no longer true, but it continues to be taught because the implications of recent discoveries are insufficiently understood.


It was principally Weidenreich, Le Gros Clark, and a few of the people of that generation, just previous to mine, who put forward and strongly defended the idea that man had gone through a very simple series of stages of evolution: the pongid stage, an Australopithecine stage, a Pithecanthropus stage, and then man as we know him today. Theoretically, this had always seemed highly unlikely to some of us, since it meant that man had done something which no other mammal had done: evolved in a single straight line instead of having one main branch, with many experimental side branches which failed to make the grade. Yet the old theory persists. Linked with it is the concept, still very, very widely taught and very widely believed, that man in the relatively near past was at a pongid or ape stage of evolution. In such a very short time, three or four million years, as the books and many of my colleagues put it, we are supposed to have lost our huge canine teeth, lost our simian shelves, lost our long, brachiating arms, ceased to dwell in the trees, and many other similar but, I fear, erroneous concepts. These were theories which in the light of current facts no longer stand up."

Leakey, L. S. B. 1967. Development of aggression as a factor in early human and pre-human evolution. Pp. 1-34 in Carmine D. Clemente and Donald B. Lindsley, eds., Aggression and Defense, Neural Mechanisms and Social Patterns. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.


Related reading: Many Groups of Archaic Humans; Facts About Human Origins; Genesis Has No Evolutionary Framework; Spinners of Evolutionary Fictions


Monday, May 30, 2022

A Word of Thanks



Dear readers,

I deeply appreciate your attention, comments, and perspectives. Thank you! Over the past 15 years you have helped me to refine my research in the field of Biblical Anthropology, an emerging science.

Some of you have joined the international Facebook group The Bible and Anthropology where we continue the conversations more interactively than is possible at a blog such as this. I hope more of you will consider joining that forum. 

May the Lord of Life bless you all.


Dr. Alice C. Linsley