Monday, March 1, 2021

Promoting YEC by Undermining the Truth


Alice C. Linsley

I am writing as a pioneer in the emerging science of Biblical Anthropology, an empirical approach to the canonical Scriptures that avoids denominational interpretations. A Biblical Anthropologist studies the Scriptures to identify anthropologically significant data that clarifies the cultural contexts of ancient biblical populations, and especially the social structure of the biblical Hebrew. This interdisciplinary approach considers kinship patterns, morphological study of human fossils, DNA studies, data about the migration of ancient populations, burial practices, and sacred symbols.

Biblical Anthropology is rigorous in that no assertion can be made without data and no assumption can stand untested. Anthropological data in the Scriptures can lead to a better understanding of the origin of the Messianic Faith among Abraham’s ancestors, shine light on contextual incongruities, and uncover antecedents of beliefs and practices. Where did the idea originate that humans were created from the soil? What is the origin of Messianic expectation? Where is the oldest known site of Hebrew worship? What is the significance of the ubiquitous solar symbolism among biblical populations?

Biblical Archaeology and Biblical Anthropology are complementary disciplines. The archaeologist digs artifacts to gain a better understanding of the material culture of populations associated with the Holy Land. The Biblical Anthropologist digs data out of the Bible to better understand the cultures and social patterns of biblical populations from Africa to Europe. The skill sets of the two disciplines are different, but they share a common objective to gain greater clarity.

I see a great deal of pseudo-science and half-truths among anthropologists who disdain religion in general and Christianity in particular. Their scholarship is like a map out of which numerous holes have been cut. Is it any wonder that so few anthropologists are people of faith? In the universities they are never shown the whole map. They miss the paths that lead to verification of the core Christian beliefs and the veracity of Scripture.

Yet anthropology has much to offer to the Church and to those to read the Bible. A principle in anthropological investigation states that the older culture traits, symbols, and beliefs are those found most widely dispersed globally. Expectation of a righteous ruler who would die and rise from the grave and lead his people to immortality was held by the Hebrew (Akkadian: Abrutu) ruler-priests 6000 years ago. They spread this belief wherever they dispersed in the service of kingdom builders like Nimrod. This means that their belief in bodily resurrection is central to the oldest known religion.

Young Earth Creationists consistently ignore anthropological data because it shows that humans have been around for millions of years. By insisting that the Earth is only 6000-8000 years, Young Earth Creationists deny the weighty evidence that God was laying the ground among archaic human populations for the Messianic Faith that would eventually be fulfilled in Jesus.

The hope for immortal life is evident in the widespread, archaic practice of burial in red ocher, a symbolic blood covering. Red ocher burials dating to 300,000 years ago have been found at site GnJh-03 in the Kapthurin Formation of East Africa, and at Twin Rivers in Zambia. 

Red ocher burials dating to 100,000 year ago have been found at the Qafzeh Cave in Lower Galilee.

A man buried at La Chapelle-aux-Saints in southern France was buried in red ocher 45,000 years ago.

A man was buried in red ocher in Paviland Cave, Wales 35,000 years ago.

Four bodies were buried in red ocher at Sungir in Russia 32,000 years ago.

A man was buried in red ocher in Goat's Hole Cave in Wales 27,000 years ago.

The "Fox Lady" of Doini Vestonice, Czechoslovakia, was buried in red ocher 26,000-23,000 years ago. Around the same time, Lake Mungo Woman (LM1) was cremated and her remains were sprinkled with red ocher in Australia.

A woman buried in Santa Maria di Agnano cave in Italy was buried 24,000 years ago with hundreds perforated shells and her head was covered with red ocher paste.

A man buried in Bavaria was buried with mammoth tusks and submerged in red ocher 20,000 years ago. Around the same time, a lady was buried in Paviland, Wales in red ocher. 

A woman was buried in red ocher in El Mirón Cave in Northern Spain 19,000 years ago.

A young child was buried in red ocher 11,000 years ago in Alaska.

The global nature of the practice of red ocher burial tells us that it is extremely old. It suggests that God has been pointing humanity to the Christ event for many thousands of years.

The Bible asserts that life is in the blood. That is true in terms of human biology and it is true in a metaphysical sense. The Blood covering that brings immortality has been revealed. Christians are to make this evident to the world. We cannot do that if we deny the facts or obfuscate the truth.

Related reading: Artifacts of Great Antiquity; On Blood and the Impulse to Immortality, The Age of the Earth and the Evidence of Human Occupation; Genesis and Inerrancy; Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection

Thursday, February 4, 2021

Job the Horite Hebrew

“In the land of Uz there lived a man whose name was Job. This man was blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil.” (Job 1:1)

Alice C. Linsley 

The land of Uz is named for the Horite Hebrew clan of Uz. Uz was a son of Dishan, a son of Seir the Horite Hebrew ruler of Edom who is mentioned in Genesis 36. The relationship of the Uz clan to Seir the Horite is shown on the diagram above.

Seir was a ruler in ancient Edom long before there was a king in Israel (Gen. 36:31) The Edom-Horite Hebrew connection is evident in Lamentations 4:21 - "Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwells in the land of Uz…”  

In the book of Job, the last of Job's kinsmen to speak is Elihu, whose name means "word of God". El – is an ancient word for God, and Hu refers to the authoritative word in ancient Egyptian. (Pyramid Texts Utterance 251, and Utterance 697). Here we find a concept of the Divine Word that is similar to the Logos of John's Prologue.

Elihu was of the clan of Buz. Buz, Huz and Uz represent a three-clan Hebrew confederation. 1 Chronicles 5:14 says that the son of Buz was Jahdo (Yahdo), and Jahdo's son was Yeshishai, the Aramaic form of Yeshua/Jesus.

Most Old Testament scholars believe the book of  Job was written between the 7th and 4th centuries BC long after the time that Job would have lived. However, the book reflects more ancient Horite Hebrew customs and beliefs. Job is portrayed as a righteous ruler-priest who offers sacrifices daily to cover the sins of his family members. His connection to Seir the Horite ruler of Edom also connects him to the royal house of David whose hometown of Bethlehem was a Horite Hebrew settlement. That is why the Ark of the Covenant rested for 3 months on the property of Obed-Edom in Bethlehem. Obed was the first-born son of Boaz and Ruth. He is the grandfather of David. 

In 1 Chronicles 26:4 some of the Temple doorkeepers are designated "sons of Obed-Edom". Salmon, who married Rahab, is called the "father" (elder/chief) of Bethlehem in 1 Chronicles 2:54, and Hur (Hor) is named a "father" of Bethlehem in I Chronicles 4:4.

Edom is described in the Bible as one of the ancient seats of wisdom. The wisdom of the Horite Hebrew extended to medicine, astronomy, metal work, stone masonry, mining, animal husbandry, writing, commerce, navigation, agriculture, and architecture.

Monday, February 1, 2021

The Golden Calf in Anthropological Context

The celestial bull calf on an ancient Egyptian coffin; a symbol of salvation?

Alice C. Linsley

A detailed study of the biblical information about Aaron is revealing. He was a Hebrew priest who fashioned a golden bull calf, a Horite symbol of God's son, Horus (HR meaning "most High One" in Ancient Egyptian). The bull was a celestial symbol for God. In fact, the English word God likely comes from the anceint Akkadian word for bull, which is gud. This would explain why in Iceland, þjór' (thor) means bull and is the name of the High God of the Nordic pantheon, later displaced by Odin.

The Danish word for bull is tyr. In the Swedish language bull is tjur. Bull in Latin is taurus. These share the root TR which suggests a connection to blood, purity, radiance, the Sun, copper, gold, and holiness. The TR root is very old and it reflects the polysemic feature of the oldest known lexicons.

The terms for ritual purity in Sumerian, Akkadian, biblical Hebrew, Hittite, and Ugaritic are related to the idea of radiance. (See The Semantics of Purity in the Ancient Near East, p. 5.) The ancient Nilotes associated purity with the radiance of the sun, the emblem of the High God.

The Proto-Dravidian word tor refers to blood. In Hausa, toro means clean, and in Tamil tiru means holy. There is a relationship between tor and the Hebrew thr which means "to be pure." The people were made pure when the High Priest sacrificed the bull and made atonement with the blood of the sin offering (Ex. 30:1-10). In ancient Nilotic mythology, the deceased king must eat the celestial bull to achieve immortality.

Aaron's golden bull calf was a sacred symbol among the Horite Hebrew before Judaism. A late Jewish hand on Exodus suggests that this was an idol, and yet the bull was the central image at the shrines of Bethel and Dan. It represents the son's sacrifice that atones for the sins of the people. Judaism rejects the Horite Hebrew belief in God Father and God Son.

The sacrificial bull calf was shown overshadowed by the sun, a sign of divine appointment for the Horite Hebrew. This is a Messianic image. Aaron is not criticized for making this image. However, the people are criticized for worshiping the image. Here a distinction must be made between the symbolism of the golden bull calf and the actions of the people. To express this for people today, we make the distinction between worship of the cross and worship of the Messiah who died on the cross.

Monday, January 18, 2021

Zodiacs in Synagogues

In December 1928 a work crew from kibbutz Beth Alpha was digging a drainage canal when a worker's shovel started picking up pieces of mosaic. Soon after, Eliezer Lippa Sukenik and Nahman Avigad of Hebrew University began to excavate the site. They uncovered an almost complete mosaic on the floor of an ancient synagogue. When it was exposed, the mosaic measured 28 meters long (91.8 feet) and 14 meters wide (45.9 feet).

In the square panel of the Beth Alpha mosaic was a zodiac with 12 symbols, surrounded by four female figures at the corners, representing the seasons of the year. (Credit: Art Resource, NY)

In the center, a man is pictured driving a four-horse chariot through the heavens. He represents the annointed of the High God whose symbol was the sun. Among the ancient Horite Hebrew, the High God was said to have a son who rode his solar barque or solar chariot. This explains why rays of the sun radiate from the man's head.

Similar zodiacs with solar symbolism have been found in nunerous synagogues, testifying to the importance of solar symbolism in Judaism. The Jewish Sun blessing (Birka Hachama) is performed every 28 years.

Saturday, December 19, 2020

Yebu, Ijebu, Jebusite


Jesus greeted as a king in Jerusalem

Alice C. Linsley

The Jebusites were a well-entrenched “Canaanite” population with two main branches. One branch lived in the region of Gilead and the other in and around Jerusalem which was a Jebusite stronghold before David’s time. 1 Chronicles 11:4 – “David and all Israel marched to Jerusalem, that is Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.”

David purchased a threshing floor from the Jebusite chief Araunah and used the site to erect an altar to God. Threshing floors were sacred places among many biblical populations.

The two Canaanite groups of Jebusites maintained their solidarity, giving military aid to each other when needed. They were never defeated or driven out of Canaan by the Israelites. The description of David's conquest influenced how the Jebusites were presented in the Deuteronomistic history, but in fact, Jebusites served in David’s army and court. 1 Kings 9:20-21 makes it clear that Jebusites also served in Solomon’s kingdom.

The Jebusites are a very ancient people who spread into Canaan and westward from the Nile Valley into Nigeria where they are known as “Ijebu.” As with the Canaanite Jebusites, the Ijebu are divided into two groups: the Nago-Jebu and the Ketu-Jebu. Both divisions take the serpent as their totem. Ketu and Naga are two ancient words for serpent. In ancient Egyptian literature the cosmic serpent is called RahuKetu.

The term “Jebusite” is derived from Yebu, which designated sacred shrines such as the one on Elephantine Island (Yebu) on the Nile. Jerusalem was originally called Yebu/Jebu.

Today the two IJebu provinces are called Jebu Remu and Jebu Ode, and the title of their high king is "Awujali.” The IJebu are classified as Yoruba, but the term 'Yoruba' was applied to related tribal groups only after the 18th century. 

In 1892, the New York Times reported on the IJebu control of the water systems of the Benue Trough extending to the Port of Lagos. The headline (shown above) reads that the Ijebu king threatened to attack Lagos.

When the people greeted Jesus as he entered Jerusalem, they greeted him with palm branches as a king to be enthroned. Ceremonial installation of rulers with palms was an ancient tradition and probably goes back to the time when Jerusalem was a Jebusite city. Even today fresh palm tree fronds are used ceremonially at the installation of Ijebu rulers. Jude Adebo Adeleye Ogunade writes in his memoir about growing up Ijebu. He was warned not to touch the leaves of the Igi-Ose tree because, as his Mama Eleni explained, "That tree is the tree whose leaves are used to install Chiefs and Kings of Ijebu and as your grandfather was a custodian of the rites of chieftaincy and kingship you must not play with its leaves."

Saturday, November 28, 2020

Astronomical Ceiling Diagrams

Astronomical ceiling from Senenmet's Tomb at Thebes (18th Dynasty)

Alice C. Linsley

Early Egyptian astronomers observed and recorded the movement of the stars to understand their seasonal effect on the Nile Valley. These astronomers were mainly temple priests who had been keeping records of astronomical cycles and events for many millennia. 

Plato wrote that Nilotic scribes had been keeping astronomical records for 10,000 years. He should know since he studied with a priest in Memphis for 13 years, and knew about Earth's Great Year. This is the time of between 25,000 and 28,000 years that it takes for Earth to complete the cycle of axial precession. This precession was known to Plato who defined the "perfect year" as the return of the celestial bodies (planets) and the diurnal rotation of the fixed stars to their original positions. The ancients understood much more about the natural world than we moderns recognize.

By 4245 BC, the priests of the Upper Nile had established a calendar based on the appearance of the star Sirius. Apparently, they had been tracking this star and connecting it to seasonal changes and agriculture for thousands of years. The priest Manetho reported in his history (c.241 BC) that Nilotic Africans had been “star-gazing” as early as 40,000 years ago.

The ancient Nilotic astronomers observed that 36 groups of stars (small constellations) rise in a consecuative order on the eastern horizon every 24 hours. Each decan rises for 10 days. This gave them the formula of 36 X 10 = 360 days, with the calendar broken into 12 months of 30 days each.

By the time of the New Kingdom, each decan was regarded as a divine power related to the High God whose emblem was the Sun. The solar orb (shown above) appears over their heads to identify them with the Creator. These figures have descriptive names in ancient Egyptian, many of them with the Horus designation: Hor/Her/Hery, refering to the realm of the High God.The word Horus means "Most High One." In the Pyramid Texts Horus recognizes his Father in the deceased righteous king. In the priest's prayer he says, "Horus is a soul and he recognizes his Father in you..." (Utterance 423)

The astronomical ceiling paintings at Abydos and Dendera are different, making it difficult to interpret the meanings. Perhaps these represent different cultic interpretations or different ways of representing the solar year. In 1973, Otto Neugebauer suggested that the complexity of Egyptian calendars "represents the peaceful coexistence of different methods of defining time moments and time intervals in different ways on different occasions." (Current Anthropology Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 389-449)

Senenmet was Queen Hatshepsut’s architect and chancellor. His tomb was built close to the Million Year Temple of his mistress.The four walls of Senenmet's tomb are decorated with utterances from the Ancient Pyramid Texts that mention the "imperishable stars." The imperishable stars reside with the Father in heaven. Utterance 667 of the Pyramid Texts makes this clear: "Oh Horus, this hour of the morning, of this third day is come, when thou surely passeth on to heaven, together with the stars, the imperishable stars."

The astronomical ceiling contains the oldest known Egyptian celestial diagram. The diagram is divided into northern and southern sections. The northern section mentions the 12 months of the civil calendar and has representations of the northern constellations. The southern section includes lists of decans and the planets visible to ancient Egyptians with the naked eye. Mars is absent because it was the planet of Horus, the son of Ra. Horus was not regarded as a lesser assisting power/deity. The Egyptians called Mars Her Deshur, meaning "Horus of the Horizon." 

The north-south axis represents the hope of resurrection, as is evident from the Pyramid Texts. In his resurrection body the deified one is to "traverse the Mound of Horus of the Southerners" and "traverse the Mound of Horus of the Northerners" (PT Utterances 536 and 553). The risen ruler restores his settlements and cities, and opens doors to the Westerners, Easterners, Northerners, and Southerners (PT Utterance 587). He is to "betake himself to the Mansion of Horus which is in the firmament" (PT Utterance 539).

Some have supposed that the diagram is a monumental papyrus scheme prepared for the construction of a water clock or clepsydra. The clepsydra had been used for thousands of years by the Nilotic priest astronomers to measure the passage of time.

Monday, November 9, 2020

Tracing the Israelites' Travels

In this article we will trace the travels of the Israelites moving backwards from Arnon to Hormah. By moving this direction possible connections between Arnon, Arad of Hormah, Mount Hor, and the Horite Hebrew of Edom become more evident.

Arnon refers to a canyon/valley and a river that rose in the mountains of Gilead, east of the Jordan. This was the land of the Ar of Moab whose lords resided in the high places. Deuteronomy 2:36 claims that the Israelites captured the town in the Arnon gorge and all the towns as far north as Gilead.

Ar indicates a ruling caste. The Aro were a militant caste of ruler-priests who spread out of the Benue Trough region of modern Nigeria. The Ar designation appears in many names, including Joseph of Arimathea, King Arthur, and King Arad who took some of the Israelites captive (Numbers 21:1). Arad was the ruler of Hormah according to Judges 12:14.

Iye or Ije Abarim was one of the wilderness places where the Israelites stopped at during the Exodus. The name means "Ruins of Abarim." According to Numbers 33:44, they traveled from Oboth, and encamped in Iye Abarim.

Oboth is one of the places where the Israelites stopped during their travels. They camped there after leaving Mount Hor in Edom where Aaron died.

Mount Hor in ancient Edom is where Aaron transferred his priestly office and garments to Eleazar before his death. It is also where he was buried. This mountain was sacred to the Horite Hebrew of Edom long before the Israelites arrived there.

Hormah was ruled by King Arad. It was a city north of Beersheba where Abraham's cousin bride, Keturah, resided. Sarah resided in Hebron.

There is evidence that the people who came out of Egypt had kinsmen at some of the sacred elevated settlements in Canaan and that their travels took them to where they could connect with those kinsmen. The Horite Hebrew ruler-priests like Moses, Aaron, and Korah were related to the priests of Aram, Edom and Moab. They shared a common male ancestor in Terah. The Moabites are descended from Terah through his deceased son Haran and his grandson Lot.

Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of Moses's family reveals the distinctive pattern of the Horite ruler-priest caste. This should not surprise us since Moses is the half-brother of the ruler-priest Korah, a descendant of the Horite Hebrew ruler, Seir of Edom.

According to tradition, Moses died before the people entered the land of the Canaanite peoples. Before he died, Moses gave these instructions "when the Lord your God has brought you into the land which you go to possess, that you shall put the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal" (Deut. 11:29).

Mounts Gerazim and Ebal rise on the south and north sides of the West Bank city of Nablus in the Vale of Shechem. Shechem became the first Israelite capital. Some scholars believe that the blessing-curse ceremony was not part of the initial travels of the Israelites, but instead reflects a covenant ceremony (Deut. 27) experienced by the second generation of Israelites in Canaan.

The root of Gerizim is garaz, which means to be cut off, implying destruction/infertility, or death of a people. From Gerizim, the priests declared the blessings and from Ebal they pronounced the curses (Deut. 11:29).

On Mount Ebal the Israelites built an altar using natural stones. The stones were whitened with lime and peace offerings were offered on that altar. Apparently, Ebal was a mountain sacred to the ancient Edomites. Genesis 36:31 notes that the Horite Hebrew rulers of Edom were an older royal lineage than the Israelite kings.

Mount Ebal is higher than Mount Gerizim. It rises 3084 feet above sea level, some 194 feet (59 meters) higher than Mount Gerizim.