Saturday, October 14, 2017

Akkadian Lexicon

This fragment of a tablet from Nimrud contains a list of synonyms.
It gives Malku as a synonym for Šarru.
British Museum ND 5434
Alice C. Linsley

This partial list of Akkadian words will be helpful to biblical anthropologists. These words should be compared to words in ancient Egyptian, Old Arabic, Hungarian (Magyar), and Bulgarian (Thracian).

Akkadian is an inflected language with grammatical cases. It is a Semitic language with grammatical features similar to those found in Classical Arabic, and as with all Semitic languages, Akkadian words are built on consonantal roots. Most Akkadian roots are tri-consonantal. Some roots are composed of four consonants (four radicals). Between and around these radicals there are various infixes, suffixes and prefixes.

Akkadian has three numbers (singular, dual and plural) and three cases (nominative, accusative and genitive). However, the dual number is largely confined to natural pairs (eyes, ears, etc.) or binary sets. This appears to reflect a very archaic pattern. Adjectives are never found in the dual. In the dual and plural, the accusative and genitive are merged into a single oblique case.

abal - without
abaru - lead (metal)
abatu - to flee from, to run away; also to completely destroy
abnu - stone
abum - father
abdu - servant, slave
abru - priest
abrutu - priesthood, a caste of priests
adikanna - time
ammeni - why
amtu - handmaid
ana - to, for, after, approximately
anaku - the royal I  (compare ancient Egyptian anochi - I)
Anu/Anum - the High God whose son is called Enki.
apkallu - wise man/ healer priest?
arbu - fugitive, runaway
arhu - month
assatu (Variants: assutu/issutu) - principal wife
assatu awili - veiled principal wife (in public)
askuppatu - threshold
ayyu - which?
azu - physician priest (Sargon was born in Azu-pir-Anu - house of divine healing/temple)

ba - water
babum - gate, door
bantu - mother
bel - lord of
birûtu - human (clean, pure)
bit durani - fortress (bit tuklati - stronghold)
bītu - fortified shrine
burumitu - sky blue; lapis lazuli

Da-odu - David (Corresponds to the Yoruba Daw-odu.)
dahh-ubu - gold (also hurusam)
dannum/danim - strong, powerful
daris - for ever
darutu - long life
datu - law, decreee
dû - hill

ebar - beyond, the other side of
ebebu - to be clean
Edinu - Eden
edû - flow, spring
eka - where?
ekallim - palace (place where deity resides?)
eli - up, over
ellum - ritually pure
em - wherever
en - lord, high official, priest, priestess
Enki - the son of the Creator God Anu (En-ki means "Lord of the Earth.")
erbe/arba - four
erebu/erbum - sunset, time of setting sun
eridu - home away from home
erimtu - baked brick
ersetu - Earth (also ki or gi)
ersu - bed (related to resû, Akkadian word for riverbed, channel.)
eš - pavilion, tent, shrineesirtu - concubine

gam - also
gārû - opponent in war
garru/garrum - a box
gurguri - copper smith/metal worker
guruvash - servant (related to karauash - servant)
girginakku (Variant: garginakku) - a box for written tablets
gisnu - bed (also ersu or isersu)
gud - powerful bull (also a solar symbol)

haddu - joyful
ḫāpiru - human being
harrani - road (also yol?)
hirtu (Variants: hiratu/histu) - wife
hubullu - debt, obligation
hurusam - gold (Hur/Horus + sam refering to the sun.)
hush - reddish

Idiqlat - Tigris
ilum - deity
im - rib (also ti)
immu - day
ina - in, on, out, through, under
isḫu - human, physical body (male)
išātu - fire
iši - mountain
ištēn (M); ištāt (F) - one (cardinal number)
itti - with, also

kabattu - liver
kalab - dog
kan - blood
kanu - convict
karmu - ruin
ki - earth
kikuli (also kikildu) - to train a horse or camel
kiprat arba - four regions/four peoples (related to Kirat Arba, archaic name for Hebron.)
kisallu - court
kissugu - fish
kulturi/kultari - dwellings, habitations
kur - land owned (related to kur/kar - rock shelter or fortified high place)
kurtum - territory

labaru - pertains to granting long life
labiru - old, of old
laqlaqqu - stork
letu - cheek
lemnu - bad
libnat - mud brick
lū - or
lumakku - junior priest

maklu - burnt offering (Variant: maqlu)
malku - ruler-priest (Synonym: Šarru)
mannu - who?
māru - son (māru rabu - eldest son)
martum - daughter
maṣṣarum - guards
matum - country
mīnū - what?
mittu - mace

na - a modal prefix indicating service to, affirmation, or affiliation. Na-Hor - a servant of Horus
nabu - prophet, seer
nagasu - roam (naga - snake, Azag - the Great Serpent, one shining like metal - zag)
nanna - moon
nesû - (1) distant; from far, exotic; (3) to withdraw; to depart from, abandon; to remove; (3) to deport (people); to make recede/repel

parzillu - iron
pid - box, chest or arc
purkullu - stone cutter

qannu - horn
qannuntu - curly haired (F)
qaštu - bow (with arrow)
qātu - hand

rabum - great
rapšum - wide
resû - river bed, branch of river

sag - head
šamû - heaven
samsum - sun
sandu - red
šarratum - queen
šarrum - king
šarāqum - to steal
šattu - year
sebet babi - seven gates
šepum - foot; šepān - feet
sibbu - serpent
šinā (M); šittā (F) - two (cardinal number)
siparru - copper
sisu - horse
sittu - rest
šumeru - Sumerian

tamtu - sea
tiamatu - ocean, abyss
tinūru - oven

u - and
ud - fire
ul - high, elevated (sky)
urru - daytime
ūṣu, uṣṣu - arrow, arrowhead
utu - sun power, divine overshadowing, high noon (Similar to Aker in ancient Egyptian.)
ummum - mother

wasabu - sit (Possibly related to the seated harwa, a healer-priest, called "wabau" in Egyptian.)
wasu - small

zag - shining, like copper
zeru - seed

Related reading: Ancient Egyptian Lexicon, Hungarian Lexicon; The Sumerian Language; Dictionary of the Apatani Language; Key to a Grammar of Akkadian by John Huehnergard

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