Friday, September 22, 2017

Hungarian Lexicon

Listen to spoken Hungarian

Alice C. Linsley

Although Hungarian is not a pitch-accent language, Hungarian has four distinct tonal melodies: The 'raising' and the 'falling' and the first syllable of each word is stressed. Also the vowels have different tones.
The Hungarian language is classified in the Uralic family. Hungarian words have affinity to words in related Uralic languages: Estonian, Finnish, Lappish, Mordvin and Samoyed. It appears to be related to ancient Scythian or Saka. There are also words that show the influence of classical Latin, and in more recent centuries, German.

The Hungarian alphabet is similar to the English, but there are more vowels: á, é, í, ó, ö, ő, ú, ü, ű; and extra consonants: cs, gy, ly, ny, ty, sz, zs.

Hungarian is largely phonetic. Once you master the sound values of the alphabet, you will be able to read Hungarian texts. The values are always the same, making it easier to master Hungarian pronunciation.

As with Greek, Latin and Russian, it has cases: genitive, dative, instrumental, etc. Here is an explanation of how words change case.

The language shows causation in the verb semantics

People who have studied Latin, French of Spanish will be familiar with verb conjugation. This is done in Hungarian also. Hungarian also has reflexive pronouns.

What follows is a limited Lexicon of old Hungarian words. The * indicates words with an explanation in the NOTES.

The Hungarian/Magyar Lexicon

áldás - blessing

barlang - cave, grotto, den
betegség - sickness, illness, disease
*bíró - judge

dal - song
dél/deli - shine, brightness, splendour

*Ég - heaven
egész - whole
egy - one
éjszaka - night
erdő - forest (variant of Eredo and Eridu.)
*eskű - oath

fal - wall  (Körfal refers to a circular fortification.)
fej - head
fel - up
fény - light
folyó - river (also pojo)

gyula - war chief

hab - water (also viz)
hadak ura (hadúr, hodúr) - warlord, military commander
hajnal - dawn
hajó - ship
hamu - ashes
hely - place
hegység - mountain
hold - moon
hon - home

igen - yes

jár - to walk
jász (gyász) - mourning
jó - good

kályha - fire, stove, brashier
kan - male
kar - arm
keleti - eastern
kende (also kündü) - deified ruler
kés - knife
kéz - hand
kis - little, small
könyökcső - knee (also térd)
kör - circle (also év)
körfal - circular wall
körpad - round mound
körom - soot
kürt - horn
kuruzslók - healers
kű - stone

lé - liquid (also té)
lék - leak
ló - horse

*mag - seed (mg root also expresses great and kinship)
*Makar (Magor, Magar) - archaic name for the Creator, whose emblem was the Sun
mat - country
meg - and
méh - bee
mező - field
mocsar - swamp
mocsok - dirt, soil

nagy - high
nap - day (also Sun, probably related to the Mongolian word nar.)
nap kör - sun circle, circular threshing floor
nedű - liquid
nő - woman
nyit - to open

óg - exalted, elevated, a ruler
őr - guardian, sentry, watchman
öreg - old
örök - eternal
orom - high place, mountain peak
ős - ancestor
ősember - cave-dwelling ancestor
os haza - original house, main house
ősz - grey (used to describe hair)

piros - red (used to describe inanimate objects)

saj - river
sár - shine
sarok - corner
sivatag - desert, wilderness
só - salt
száj - mouth
szem - eye

táltos - priest, shaman, wise man, healer 
tehén - cow
túr - to dig
tűz - fire

váj - to carve
*vér - blood, color red (perhaps related to the Latin vir, meaning man)
vörös - red (used to describe animate objects)
viz - water


*The old Hungarian world for judge is bíró. This is likely related to the words biru and piru, which pertain to shrines and places of sacrifice.

*There is a clear relationship between these words Ég - heaven, egész - whole, and egy - one.

*The word erdő (forest) is a cognate to Eridu (Sumerian place name) and Eredo (Nigerian place name).

*The Hungarian word for oath is eskű, and is related to the word kű, meaning stone. Stone were erected to mark the places where oaths were pledged.

*Mag means seed, son, and can refer to a brother. The biblical word Magog is likely Mag-Og (Magóg), meaning the seed of Og, a ruler. Mag is related to the Sanskrit mah, meaning great. The word Magi refers to ruler-priests. They were mathematicians, astronomers and the builders of the first cities, known as high places. According to Clement of Alexandria, "Egypt is the mother-land of the Magi". It appears that among the biblical peoples there was a 3-clan royal confederation of Og, Gog and Magog.

*Makar (also Magor) is the High God. Kar refers to a mountain. The high God was believed to make appearances on the tops of mountains, as this was the sacred spatial center between earth and heaven.

*The Hungarian word for man and blood is vér. This parallels the Hebrew adamah (Adam), which refers to man and is derived from the word dam, meaning blood.

Dr. Tibor Baráth believes the word "Celtic" is derived from the Magyar word keleti, meaning eastern.

The ancient Hungarian “sun-houses” were round huts. Some had a bee hive shape.

The Old Hungarian script, called rovás, is a runic script written from right to left.

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